The Cannabis Review®

A collection of scientific studies on cannabinoids and terpenes, arranged to help us identify and understand the unique potential of cannabis-based treatment.

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring molecules found in cannabis that are linked to a number of medical benefits and treatments. The Cannabis Review® | Cannabinoids is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the conditions cannabinoids treat, by what mechanism, and the magnitude of the effect.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of cannabinoids treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Cannabinoid Condition treated Effect Amount used Study Grade
CBC (Cannabichromene) Colitis Antiinflammatory (major) NA The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
CBC (Cannabichromene) Depression Antidepressant (major) 20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema Antiinflammatory (major) 120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
CBC (Cannabichromene) Inflammation-induced hypermotility Antiinflammatory (major) 10mg/kg Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
CBC (Cannabichromene) Microbiological Contamination Antimicrobial (major) NA Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannaibichromene) Microbiological Contamination Antimicrobial (major) NA Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannaibichromene) Microbiological Contamination Antimicrobial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
CBD (Cannabidiol) AD-related neuroinflammation Antiinflammatory (major) 2.5 or 10mg/kg Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
CBD (Cannabidiol) Acute Pancreatitis Antiinflammatory (major) 0.5mg/kg Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
CBD (Cannabidiol) Acute lung injury Antiinflammatory (moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
CBD (Cannabidiol) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anorexia Appetite Stimulant (major) NA Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anorexia Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA Cannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anorexia(with Alzheimer’s Disease) Appetite Stimulant (major) NA Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (major) NA Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (major) 400mg Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (major) 600mg Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (major) 600mg Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) 300mg Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) 15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Appetite Loss Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Arthritis Antiarthritic (major) 5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial (moderate) 50μg/ml Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial (moderate) 50μg/mL Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol) Brain Injury Neuroprotectant (major) 300mg Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
CBD (Cannabidiol) Brain Injury Neuroprotectant (major) 300mg Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
CBD (Cannabidiol) Brain Injury Neuroprotectant (major) NA Neuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
CBD (Cannabidiol) Brain Injury Neuroprotectant (major) NA The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Breathing Difficulties Antidyspnoea (moderate) 10mg Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Anticancer (major) NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Anticancer (major) 0.5 to 7.0μl/ml In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Anticancer (major) NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Anticancer (moderate) NA Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antiproliferative (minor) NA Physiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antiproliferative (moderate) 1–10µM Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antiproliferative (moderate) 1–10µM Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (major) NA Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (major) NA Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (major) NA Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 0.5mg Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) NA Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 50mM Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 100mM Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cardiovascular Complications Cardiac Proctection (major) NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
CBD (Cannabidiol) Central Neuropathic Pain Analgesic (moderate) 25mg/mL Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Chronic Pain Antiinflammatory (minor) 2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression Antidepressant (moderate) 15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression Antidepressant (moderate) 30mg/kg Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression Antidepressant (moderate) 15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetes Antidiabetic (moderate) 100mg Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
CBD (Cannabidiol) Dystonia Antidystonic (moderate) 100 to 600mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol) Dystonia Antidystonic (moderate) 200mg Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (major) 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) 2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) NA Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) 1 to 20mg/kg CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) 5-50mg/kg Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy(Seizure state) Anticonvulsant (major) 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy(Seizure state) Anticonvulsant (minor) NA Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
CBD (Cannabidiol) Facial Emotion Recognition Improves recognition of emotional facial (moderate) 16mg Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
CBD (Cannabidiol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (minor) 20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
CBD (Cannabidiol) Glioblastoma multiforme Anticancer (major) NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
CBD (Cannabidiol) Huntington’s Disease Neuroprotective (moderate) 10mg/kg Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
CBD (Cannabidiol) Hyperlocomotion Antipsychotic (moderate) 15–60mg/kg Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
CBD (Cannabidiol) Immobility Antidepressant (moderate) 10–60nmol Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Immune System related diseases Auto-immunity (moderate) 2.5 or 5mg/kg Cannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
CBD (Cannabidiol) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) 5–40mg/kg Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
CBD (Cannabidiol) Insomnia Improve Sleep (moderate) 25mg,
6mg to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Analgesic (moderate) 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Analgesic (moderate) 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antinociceptive (moderate) NA Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antispasticity (minor) 12mg The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 4sprays Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Neuroprotection (moderate) 2.5–120mg A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis Urinary Protection (moderate) 2.5mg An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 200mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 200mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 5mg/kg Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroinflammatory diseases Antiinflammatory (minor) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
CBD (Cannabidiol) Osteoporosis Bone Stimulant (moderate) NA Regulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
CBD (Cannabidiol) Parkinson’s Disease Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate) 300mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol) Parkinson’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) 300mg Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Parkinson’s disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) 75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Parkinson’s disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) 300mg Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases Antiinflammatory (major) NA Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
CBD (Cannabidiol) Peripheral pain response Analgesic (moderate) NA (+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
CBD (Cannabidiol) Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol) Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol) Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol) Psychotic Experiences Antipsychotic (minor) NA Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
CBD (Cannabidiol) Retinal Inflammatory Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
CBD (Cannabidiol) Rheumatic Diseases Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
CBD (Cannabidiol) Schizophrenia Antipsychotic (moderate) 0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
CBD (Cannabidiol) Sepsis Antiinflammatory (minor) NA Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
CBD (Cannabidiol) Spasticity Antispasticity (minor) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol) Spinal Injury Neuroprotectant (moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
CBD (Cannabidiol) Uveitis Antiinflammatory (major) 5mg/kg Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Cancer Anticancer (moderate) NA Cannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (minor) 2μM Cannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea Antiemetic (minor) 0.1μg/kg Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5mg/kg Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 5–0.1μg/kg Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5mg/kg Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (moderate) 50–422mg/kg Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (moderate) 400mg/kg Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBG (Cannabigerol) Cancer Antitumor (major) N/A Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CBG (Cannabigerol) Cancer(Melanoma) Antitumor (moderate) 31.31μ/mL Synthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CBG (Cannabigerol) Cancer(Oral epitheloid) Antitumor (major) NA Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CBG (Cannabigerol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (moderate) NA A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
CBG (Cannabigerol) Human immune diseases Immunosuppressive (moderate) NA A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
CBG (Cannabigerol) Huntington’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
CBG (Cannabigerol) Huntington’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
CBG (Cannabigerol) Huntington’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
CBG (Cannabigerol) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa.
CBG (Cannabigerol) Irritable bowel syndrome Antiinflammatory (major) NA Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
CBG (Cannabigerol) MRSA Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBG (Cannabigerol) Neuroinflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
CBG (Cannabigerol) Oxidative-stress related disorders Antioxidant (moderate) NA Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
CBN (Cannabinol) ALS Neuroprotectant (moderate) 5mg/kg Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
CBN (Cannabinol) Low feeding behaviour Appetite Stimulant (minor) NA Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
CBN (Cannabinol) MRSA Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN (Cannabinol) Pain Analgesic (major) NA Comparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats
CBN (Cannabinol) Tonic-clonic seizure Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
CBN (Cannabinol) Tumor Antitumor (moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) ADHD Improves behaviour (moderate) 71ng/mL Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) ADHD Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) ALS Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Acute psychosocial stress Anxiolytic (moderate) 7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant (major) NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant (minor) 4.5mg Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant (major) NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic Analgesic (minor) 10mg Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.7mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic Antiglaucoma (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anorexia Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anorexia Appetite Stimulant (moderate) 2.5mg A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anorexia Appetite Stimulant (moderate) 2.5mg A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (minor) 7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) NA A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiety Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Asthma Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 500mg Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Asthma Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 15mg Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Asthma Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 200mg Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Asthma Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 200mg Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Breathing Difficulties Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 20mg Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Chemosensory alterations Appetite Stimulant (major) 2.5mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Crohn’s Disease Antiinflammatory (minor) 115mg Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Dementia Neuroprotective (moderate) 3mg Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Edema Antiinflammatory (minor) NA Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (major) 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (major) 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (major) NA Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (minor) NA THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 10mg/m2 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 18mg/m2 An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic Antiemetic (moderate) 5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly Antileukemic (major) 200mg/kg Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (minor) NA Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (minor) 12mg Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (minor) 0.4% of mixture Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.8% of mixture Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.8% of mixture Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glioblastoma multiforme Anticaner (major) NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glioblastoma multiforme Antitumor (moderate) NA A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) HIV-infected Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Immobility Antidepressant (moderate) 2.5mg/kg Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Intestinal inflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Analgesic (moderate) 10mg A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antinociceptive (moderate) NA Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 33% of mixture The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 2-10inhalations Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 7.5mg Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 33% of mixture The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 1.54% of mixture Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) 4sprays Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antispasticity (moderate) NA The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Antitremor (moderate) NA Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate) 2.5–120mg A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis Urinary Protection (moderate) 2.5mg An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) NA Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea Antiemetic (moderate) 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neurological disorders Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuropathic Pain Analgesic (major) 25mg Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (minor) NA Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Oxidative Stress Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) NA Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) 0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) 20mg The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) 5mg Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) NA Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) 2.5–15mg Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) 6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (minor) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 20mg Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 8mg Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 5mg Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 5mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 10mg,
20mg
The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 12.3ng/mL/mg The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Analgesic (moderate) NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Antinociceptive (moderate) 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Antinociceptive (moderate) 4mg/kg Low dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain Antinociceptive (moderate) 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Posttraumatic stress disorder Antidepressant (moderate) 5mg Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Schizophrenia Antipsychotic (moderate) 2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Sleep Apnea Improves sleep (moderate) 20mg Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Spasticity Antispacity (moderate) 10 or 5mg Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Spasticity Antispasticity (minor) NA Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Spasticity Antispasticity (moderate) 15–20mg The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Spasticity Antispasticity (moderate) 10 or 5mg Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome Antihyperactivity (moderate) NA Oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome Antihyperactivity (moderate) 10mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome Antihyperactivity (moderate) 10mg Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome Antispacity (moderate) 10mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations Antigastroesophageal reflux (moderate) 20mg Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Traumatic Brain Injury Neuroprotective (moderate) NA Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Vomiting Antiemetic (moderate) NA Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) Neurodegeneration Neuroprotective (moderate) 10μM Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Acne Anti-acne (major) NA Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Diabetes Antidiabetic (moderate) 5mg Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Epelipsy Anticonvulsant (moderate) 0.25mg/kg Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Ischaemia-reperfusion Antiinflammation (moderate) NA Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Nausea Antinausea (minor) 10mg/kg Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Obesity Antiobesity (moderate) NA Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Obesity Stimulates neural effects (moderate) 10mg Neural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Obesity Antiobesity (moderate) NA The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Obesity Antiobesity (moderate) NA Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Obesity Antiobesity (moderate) 3mg/kg Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Cannabinoid Condition treated Effect Study
CBC (Cannabichromene) Depression Antidepressant (minor) Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
CBC (Cannabichromene) Epilepsy Antiepileptic (moderate) Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
CBD (Cannabidiol) Bone diseases Stimulate Bone growth (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer Anticancer (moderate) Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
CBD (Cannabidiol) Chronic Diseases Cerebroprotective (minor) Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
CBD (Cannabidiol) Hypertension Antihypertension (moderate) Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
CBD (Cannabidiol) Intestinal prokinetic Antiprokinetic (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol) Neurodegenerative Disorders Neuroprotective (major) Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
CBD (Cannabidiol) Psoriasis Antipsoriatic (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol) Schizophrenia Antipsychosis (moderate) A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
CBD (Cannabidiol) Spasticity Antispasticity (minor) Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
CBG (Cannabigerol) Breast cancer Antiproliferative (moderate) The system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
CBN (Cannabinol) ALS Neuroprotective (moderate) Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
CBN (Cannabinol) Bone Diseases Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
CBN (Cannabinol) Glaucoma Antiglaucoma (moderate) Cannabinoids and glaucoma
CBN (Cannabinol) Osteoporosis Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anorexia Stimulate appetite (moderate) The cancer cachexia syndrome
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bipolar Neuroprotective (moderate) Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bone Diseases Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Crohn’s disease Antiinflammatory (major) Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Migraine Neuroprotective (minor) Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Osteoporosis Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Spasm and pain Antispasmodic (moderate) Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Bone Diseases Bone Stimulant (moderate) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Pain Analgesic (moderate) Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the system? A systematic review

Terpenes are molecules partially responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. They are naturally present in a number of fruits, spices, herbs and other vegetation, and research shows they have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Terpenes is a collection of scientific studies that identify conditions treated by terpenes, by what mechanism, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of the terpene used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of terpenes treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Terpenes Condition treated Effect Amount used Study Grade
Borneol Cancer Anticancer (1) NA Natural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
Borneol Cancer Anticancer (2) NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Cancer Anticancer (2) NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Fungal contamination Antifungal (2) NA Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) NA Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 4.91% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymusvulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Oral mucositis Antiinflammatory (2) 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Oral submucous fibrosis Antifibrosis (2) 18.75 to 300 μg/mL Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Pain Analgesics (4) NA A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Tension of the blood vessel walls Vasorelaxant (2) NA Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga) Thrombosis Anthrombotic (2) NA The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Cervical cancer Anticancer (1) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Hyperlipidemic Antihyperlipidemic (2) 30μg/mL Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Inflammation and pain-related processes Antinociceptive (2) NA Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Phytopathogenic bacteria Antibacterial (2) 5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil) Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal (1) NA Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Camphor Pain Analgesic (2) 200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600 μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
Camphor Pain Analgesic (2) NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora) Arthritis Antiinflammatory (1) NA Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora) Depression Antidepressant (1) 23.77% of mixture An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora) Pain Analgesic (2) NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora) Red imported fire ant Insecticide (1) 36.61% of mixture Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 35.3% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 10-35% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination undefined (1) 19.08% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 27.0% of mixture Corresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer (2) 7.8–500lg/mL Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer (1) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene Depression and anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
Caryophyllene Depression and anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial (1) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Cancer Anticancer (1) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Cerebral Ischemic Injury Neuroprotective (2) 10mg/kg Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Depression and anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (2) 7.8–500 lg/mL Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (1) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Parkinson’s disease Antiinflammatory (2) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Parkinson’s disease Antioxidant (2) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Parkinson’s disease Antibacterial (2) NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Periodontal disease Antibacterial (2) NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal (1) 16.98% of mixture Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Rheumatoid arthritis Antiinflammatory (2) 100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Seizures Anticonvulsant (2) 100mg/kg Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Seizures Neuroprotective (2) NA Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper) Tumor Antitumor (2) NA β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Cancer Anticancer (1) 17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Microbiological contaminations Antimicrobial (1) 60 to 80μg/ml Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (1) 17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Pain Analgesic (2) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene) Pain Anesthetic (1) 56.90% of mixture Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Cedrol (Also found in conifer oils (Cupressus and Juniperus) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 6.3% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury Antiinflammatory (2) NA Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal (1) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults Insecticidal (1) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
D-Limonene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) NA Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
D-Limonene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 56% and 57.5% of mixture Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Anxiety and pain Neuroprotective (1) 15.21% of mixture Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Chronic ulcers Healing property (1) 245mg/kg Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Dermatitis,Skin lesion Skin Repair (2) NA Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Diabetes mellitus Antidiabetic (1) NA Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Food-related microorganisms Antimicrobial (2) NA Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) NA Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 94% of mixture Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Skin tumorigenesis Antitumor (2) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) 10mg/kg Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Acute lung injury Antiinflammatory (2) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Adult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) Larvicida (2) NA 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Airway hypersecretion Antiinflammatory (4) 200mg Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Colitis Antiinflammatory (2) 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Edema,Pulmonary inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) NA Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Mosquito larvae Larvicidal (2) 100mg/L Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Myocardial contractility related disorders Contractile Activity (1) 0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves) Pain Analgesic (2) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 14.6–16.4% of mixture Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent) Superficial scald Antioxidant (2) NA Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (2) NA Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Aedes albopictus Insect repellent (2) 0.250μg/cm3 Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Asthma Antiasthma (2) 100 or 200mg/kg Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Atherosclerosis Antiinflammatory (2) 100mg/kg Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Buccal pouch carcinogenesis Anticancer (2) 250mg/kg Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesispathway
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Mosquito Insect repellant (2) NA Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Mosquito,Sand Fly Insect repellant (2) 5% of mixture Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Pediculus humanus humanus Insect repellant (1) NA Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type) Prostate cancer Anticancer (2) NA Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Geranyl Acetate (Also found in citronella oil, lemongrass oil, sassafras oil, rose oil) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 7.6% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Guaiol Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Guaiol Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 5% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) 8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil) Stress Anesthetic (1) NA Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 14.21% of mixture In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander) Cancer Anticancer (2) 32μg/mL Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander) Cancer Antitumor (1) NA Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isoborneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera, kaempferia galanga) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 14.66% of mixture Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol Edema Antiinflammatory (2) 22.02% of mixture In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Isopulegol Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) 22.02% of mixture In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal) Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective (2) NA Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal) Nociception Anotinociceptive (2) NA Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal) Seizures Anticonvulsant (2) NA Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Limonene Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
Limonene Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
Limonene Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Algesic Analgesic (2) NA Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective (1) NA Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Hyperalgesia Antihyperalgesia (2) 10mg/kg Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Immobility Antidepressant (2) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia (2) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Sleep deprivation Relaxant (2) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit) Writhe Antinociceptive (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Linalool Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) NA Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Linalool Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) 0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
Linalool Pain Analgesic (2) NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Linalool Pain Analgesic (2) NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) NA Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Anxiety and depression Antidepressant (2) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Autonomic nerve activity, mood states Sedative (2) NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Breast cancer Anticancer (2) NA Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Cancer Antitumor (2) NA Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Colon cancer Anticancer (2) 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Depression Antidepressant (2) 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Epilepsy Anticonvulsant (2) NA Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Glutamate induced pain Antinociceptive (2) NA Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) High heart rate and upset mood Sedative (2) NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Lung cancer Anticancer (2) NA A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Neuropathic pain Antiinflammatory (2) NA (–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Nociception Antinociceptive (2) NA Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Pain Analgesic (2) NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Prostate cancer Anticancer (2) NA Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Reflexes Anesthetic (1) 0.01 – 10μg/mL Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices) Writhe Antinociception (2) 25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Menthol (Also found in peppermint, eucalyptus & pennyroyal) Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitis Antiinflammatory (2) NA The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Myrcene Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) NA Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Myrcene Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) NA New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Myrcene Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) NA Antioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
Myrcene Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) NA The Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
Myrcene Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) 0.01μg/ml Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial (1) NA New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes Antimutagenic (2) 1,
000μg/mL
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Hyperalgesia Analgesic (2) NA Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (1) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) NA Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) 0.01μg/ml Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil) Sleep deprivation Relaxant (2) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Nerolidol Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
Nerolidol Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) NA Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Nerolidol Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) NA Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella) Leishmania species Antileishmanial (2) 100μM Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella) Leishmaniasis Antileishmanial (1) NA Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella) Malaria Antimalarial (2) 1000mg/kg Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) NA Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Ocimene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) NA Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
Ocimene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Ocimene Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 23.9% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
Ocimene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 25.11% of mixture Chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
Ocimene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 30.4% of mixture Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Ocimene (Also found in basil, parsley & mint) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Ocimene (Also found in basil, parsley & mint) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 30.4% of mixture Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
P-Cymene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
P-Cymene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 36.5% of mixture Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
P-Cymene Oxidative stress Antifungal (1) NA Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
P-Cymene Oxidative stress Antifungal (1) NA Antioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
P-Cymene Oxidative stress Antifungal (2) NA Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (2) 0.25–1.25mM Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Hyperalgesia,Pleurisy Antihyperalgesic (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Hyperalgesia,Pleurisy Antiinflammatory (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Microbiological Contaminants Antimicrobial (1) 32.6mg/L Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) NA Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal (1) NA Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil) Writhe Antinociceptive (2) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus) Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia (2) 11mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus) Fungal contamination Antifungal (2) 1.7mg/L,
1.8mg/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus) Hypernociception Antinociceptive (2) 50mg/kg Antinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus) Immobility Antidepressant (1) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus) pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 Antiinflammatory (2) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Phytol (Also found in green tea) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Pulegone House fly,Musca domestica (L.) Insecticidal (1) 69.70% of mixture Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
Pulegone House fly,Musca domestica (L.) Insecticidal (1) 67.5% of mixture Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
Pulegone (Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy) House fly,Musca domestica (L.) Insecticidal (1) 69.70% of mixture Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
Pulegone (Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy) Tribolium castaneum Insecticidal (1) 0.8-26.6% of mixture Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
Sabinene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Sabinene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 26.2% of mixture Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Sabinene Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 29.0% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans Antifungal (1) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Fungal contamination Antifungal (1) 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) HaCaT keratinocytes Cytotoxicity (1) 26.2% of mixture Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (1) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages Antiinflammatory (1) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Macrophages and keratinocytes Cytotoxicity (1) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol Cancer Antiproliferative (2) NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Terpineol Cancer Anticancer (2) 3mM,
6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Terpineol Edema Antiinflammatory (1) NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol Hepatocellular carcinoma Anticancer (2) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Terpineol Liver cancer Anticancer (2) 320μg/ml γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Terpineol Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (2) NA Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Terpineol Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (2) NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Terpineol Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria Antimicrobial (2) NA Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Terpineol Writhe Analgesic (1) NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol-4-o (Also found in cajuput oil, pine oil & petitgrain oil) LPS-stimulated human macrophages Antiinflammatory (2) NA Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Terpinolene Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (2) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Terpinolene Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (2) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Botrytis cinerea Antifungal (1) NA Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Brain tumour Anticancer (2) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Breast tumor,prostate carcinoma Anticancer (1) 8.4% of mixture Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Malassezia furfur Antifungal (1) NA Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 8.4% of mixture Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (2) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Valencene (Also found in valencia oranges) Ingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household products. Addetive Ingredient (2) NA Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine) Edema and subchronic inflammation Antiinflammatory (1) NA Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine) Malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito Larvicidal (1) NA From Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine) Metabolic bone disorders Bone stimulant (2) NA Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine) Mosquitoes Larvicidal (1) 12.5% of the mixture From Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Anxiety Anxiolytic (2) NA Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Bacterial contamination Antibacterial (1) 19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Cancer Anticancer (1) 19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Depression Antidepressant (2) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective (1) NA Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) NA α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 10.5% of mixture Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree) Edema Antiinflammatory (2) NA Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree) Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective (2) NA (−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree) Halatosis Antimicrobial (2) NA The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree) Inflammation Antiinflammatory (2) NA Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil) Obesity Antiobesity (2) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
α-Terpineol Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (1) NA Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-Terpineol Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (1) NA Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Breast cancer Cytotoxicity (2) 5.4μg/mL The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Cervical cancer Cytotoxicity (2) 12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Chronic myelogenus leukemia Antiproliferative (1) 12.66% of mixture Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Edema Antiinflammatory (1) 6.2% of mixture Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Leukemia Antiproliferative (1) NA Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Malaria Antimalarial (1) 22.6% of mixture Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 13.0% of mixture Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea) Oxidative Stress Antioxidant (1) NA Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil) Buccal bacteria Antibacterial (1) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil) Pleurisy Antiinflammatory (1) 7% of mixture Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
β-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil) Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial (1) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
β-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil) Oxidative stress Antioxidant (1) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
β-Myrcene (Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass) Lung adenocarcinoma Antitumor (1) 9.29% of mixture Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
β-Myrcene (Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass) Osteoarthritis Antiinflammatory (2) NA Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Terpene Condition treated Effect Study
Beta-Myrcene Cancer Antitumor (moderate) Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Beta-Myrcene Spasm Antispasm (minor) Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
Borneol Insomnia Anti-insomnia (moderate) Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer (moderate) β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene Pain Analgesic (moderate) β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Cancer Anticancer (moderate) β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Oxidative stress Antioxidant (moderate) β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Pain Analgesic (moderate) β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Eucalyptol Cough Cough suppresant (minor) Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
Geraniol Tumor Antitumor (major) The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
Limonene Cancer Anticancer (major) Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
Myrcene Inflammation Antiinflammatory (major) Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
α-Bisabolol Inflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils

Cannabis has been shown to have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Conditions is a collection of scientific studies that identify the molecules, found in cannabis, that treat specific conditions, by what effect, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of condition treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Condition treated Cannabinoid/ Terpene Effect Amount used Study Grade
AD-related Neuroinflammation CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) 2.5 or 10mg/kg Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
ADHD THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ADHD THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Improves behaviour (moderate) 71ng/mL Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
ALS CBN (Cannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) 5mg/kg Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
ALS THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Acne THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Anti-acne (major) NA Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Acute Lung Injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Acute Lung Injury Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (major) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Acute Pancreatitis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) 0.5mg/kg Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Acute Psychosocial Stress THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
Adult Aedes Aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) Eucalyptol Larvicidal (moderate) NA 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Aedes albopictus Geraniol Insect repellent (major) 0.250μg/cm3 Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Airway hypersecretion Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (major) 200mg Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Algesic Limonene Analgesic (moderate) NA Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Alzheimer’s Disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (major) NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
Alzheimer’s Disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (minor) 4.5mg Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
Alzheimer’s Disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
Alzheimer’s Disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (major) NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Analgesic THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 10mg Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Analgesic THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.7mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Anorexia CBD (Cannabidiol) Appetite Stimulant (major) NA Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Anorexia CBD (Cannabidiol) Appetite Stimulant (major) NA Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Anorexia CBD (Cannabidiol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA Cannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
Anorexia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
Anorexia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
Anorexia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) 2.5mg A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 300mg Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (major) 600mg Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (major) 400mg Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (major) 600mg Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
Anxiety CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (major) NA Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Anxiety D-Limonene Neuroprotective (moderate) 15.21% of mixture Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
Anxiety Limonene Anxiolytic (major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Anxiety Limonene Anxiolytic (major) 0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
Anxiety Limonene Anxiolytic (moderate) 3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
Anxiety Limonene Anxiolytic (major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Anxiety Linalool Anxiolytic (major) NA Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Anxiety Linalool Anxiolytic (major) NA Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Anxiety Linalool Anxiolytic (moderate) 0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
Anxiety Linalool Antidepressant (moderate) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Anxiety THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiolytic (minor) 7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
Anxiety THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Anxiety THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Anxiety α-Pinene / β-Pinene Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Appetite Loss CBD (Cannabidiol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
Arthritis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiarthritic (major) 5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
Arthritis Camphor Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Asthma Geraniol Antiasthma (major) 100 or 200mg/kg Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Asthma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 500mg Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
Asthma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 20mg Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
Asthma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 15mg Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
Asthma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 15mg Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
Atherosclerosis Geraniol Antiinflammatory (moderate) 100mg/kg Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood states Linalool Sedative (moderate) NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Bacterial Contamination CBD (Cannabidiol) Antibacterial (moderate) 50μg/ml Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Bacterial Contamination CBD (Cannabidiol) Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Bacterial Contamination CBD (Cannabidiol) Antibacterial (moderate) 50μg/mL Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (moderate) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (minor) 10-35% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (moderate) 19.08% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (moderate) 35.3% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (moderate) 27% of mixture Corresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
Bacterial Contamination Caryophyllene Antibacterial (moderate) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Bacterial Contamination Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol) Antibacterial (moderate) NA Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Bacterial Contamination Geranyl Acetate Antibacterial (major) 7.6% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Bacterial Contamination Humulene Antibacterial (major) 14.21% of mixture In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Bacterial Contamination Myrcene Antibacterial (major) NA New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Bacterial Contamination Ocimene Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
Bacterial Contamination Ocimene Antibacterial (major) 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Bacterial Contamination Ocimene Antibacterial (major) 23.9% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
Bacterial Contamination Ocimene Antibacterial (major) 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Bacterial Contamination P-Cymene Antibacterial (moderate) 0.25–1.25mM Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Bacterial Contamination α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antibacterial (major) α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Botrytis Cinerea Terpinolene Antifungal (moderate) NA Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain Injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) 300mg Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Brain Injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) NA Neuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
Brain Injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) NA The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
Brain Injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) 300mg Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Brain tumour Terpinolene Anticancer (moderate) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast Cancer Linalool Anticancer (moderate) NA Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Breast Cancer Terpinolene Anticancer (major) 8.4% of mixture Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Breast Cancer α-Terpineol Breast cancer (moderate) 5.4μg/mL The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Breathing Difficulties CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidyspnoea (moderate) 10mg Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
Breathing Difficulties THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Bronchodilating activity (moderate) 20mg Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Buccal bacteria Geraniol Chemopreventive (major) 250mg/kg Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Buccal bacteria α-trans-Bergamotene Antibacterial (moderate) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 0.5mg Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (major) NA Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 50mM Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) NA Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (major) NA Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD(Cannabidiol) Cancer Antitumor (moderate) 100mM Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
Cancer Borneol Anticancer (major) NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Cancer Borneol Anticancer (major) NA Natural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
Cancer Borneol Anticancer (major) NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Antitumor (major) NA Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (moderate) NA Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (major) NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (major) NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiproliferative (moderate) 1–10μM Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (major) 0.5 to 7.0μl/ml In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiproliferative (minor) NA Physiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiproliferative (moderate) 1–10μM Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Cancer CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Anticancer (moderate) NA Cannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
Cancer CBG (Cannabigerol) Antitumor (moderate) 31.31μ/mL Synthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
Cancer CBG (Cannabigerol) Antitumor (major) NA Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
Cancer CBG (Cannabigerol) Antitumor (major) NA Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
Cancer Caryophyllene Anticancer (major) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Cancer Caryophyllene Anticancer (major) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Cancer Caryophyllene Anticancer (moderate) 7.8–500lg/mL Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Cancer Caryophyllene oxide Anticancer (moderate) 17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Cancer Humulene Antitumor (moderate) NA Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Cancer Humulene Anticancer (major) 32μg/mL Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Cancer Linalool Antitumor (moderate) NA Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Cancer Terpineol Anticancer (moderate) 3 or 6mM α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Cancer Terpineol Antiproliferative (moderate) NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Cancer α-Pinene / β-Pinene Anticancer (major) α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Cardiovascular Complications CBD (Cannabidiol) Cardiac Proctection (major) NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central neuropathic pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) 25mg/mL Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Cerebral Ischemic Injury Caryophyllene Neuroprotective (major) 10mg/kg Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes Myrcene Antimutagenic (minor) 1,
000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Cervical cancer Camphene Anticancer (moderate) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Cervical cancer Camphene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Cervical cancer α-Terpineol Cytotoxicity (moderate) 12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Chronic Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (minor) 2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Chronic inflammatory disorders Menthol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Chronic myelogenus leukemia α-Terpineol Antiproliferative (major) 12.66% of mixture Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia Phellandrene Antihyperalgesia (moderate) 11mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Colitis CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiinflammatory (major) NA The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Colitis Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (moderate) 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Colon cancer Linalool Anticancer (moderate) 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Crohn’s Disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiinflammatory (minor) 115mg Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Dementia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotective (moderate) 3mg Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
Depression CBC (Cannabichromene) Antidepressant (major) 20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Depression CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidepressant (moderate) 30mg/kg Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Depression CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidepressant (moderate) 15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
Depression CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidepressant (moderate) 30mg/kg Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Depression Camphor Antidepressant (moderate) 4.91% of mixture An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Depression Caryophyllene Anxiolytic (moderate) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Depression Caryophyllene Anxiolytic (moderate) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
Depression Caryophyllene Anxiolytic (moderate) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Depression Linalool Antidepressant (moderate) 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Depression α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antidepressant (moderate) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Dermatitis, Skin lesion D-Limonene Skin Repair (major) NA Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans Sabinene Antifungal (moderate) 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Diabetes CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidiabetic (moderate) 100mg Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetes D-Limonene Antidiabetic (moderate) NA Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Diabetes THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antidiabetic (moderate) 5mg Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetic Complications CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy) CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy) CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
Dystonia CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate) 100 to 600mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Dystonia CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidystonic (moderate) 200mg Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Edema CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Edema Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema Humulene Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Edema Isopulegol Antiinflammatory (major) 22.02% of mixture In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Edema Limonene Antiinflammatory (major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Edema Linalool Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Edema Phytol Antiinflammatory (moderate) 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Edema THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiinflammatory (minor) NA Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
Edema Terpineol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Edema Δ-3-Carene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema α-Bisabolol Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Edema α-Terpineol Antiinflammatory (major) 6.2% of mixture Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Edema(carrageenin-induced) CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiinflammatory (major) 120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Edema(carrageenin-induced) CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Isopulegol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Isopulegol Antiinflammatory (major) 22.02% of mixture In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Δ-3-Carene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema(carrageenin-induced) Δ-3-Carene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (major) 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (minor) NA THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 18mg/m2 An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 10mg/m2 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (major) NA Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (major) 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Emetic activity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) NA Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) 5 – 50mg/kg Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) 2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) 1 to 20mg/kg CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiepileptic (moderate) 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Epilepsy CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticonvulsant (major) 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Epilepsy CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Epilepsy Linalool Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Epilepsy THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Anticonvulsant (moderate) 0.25mg/kg Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Epilepsy (Seizure state) CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant (moderate) 50–422mg/kg Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
Epilepsy (Seizure state) CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Epilepsy (Seizure state) CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant (moderate) 400mg/kg Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
Epilepsy(Seizure state) CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticonvulsant (major) 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Epilepsy(Seizure state) CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticonvulsant (minor) NA Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
Facial Emotion Recognition CBD (Cannabidiol) Improves recognition of emotional facial (moderate) 16mg Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Food-related microorganisms D-Limonene Antimicrobial (major) NA Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antileukemic (major) 200mg/kg Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Fungal Contamination Borneol Antifungal (major) 36.5% of mixture Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Fungal Contamination D-Limonene Antifungal (major) 56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Fungal Contamination D-Limonene Antifungal (major) NA Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Fungal Contamination D-Limonene Antifungal (minor) 56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Fungal Contamination Farnesene Antifungal (major) 14.6–16.4% of mixture Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Fungal Contamination Myrcene Antifungal (moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Fungal Contamination Nerolidol Antifungal (major) NA Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Fungal Contamination Ocimene Antifungal (moderate) 30.4% of mixture Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Fungal Contamination Ocimene Antifungal (moderate) 30.4% of mixture Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Fungal Contamination Ocimene Antifungal (moderate) 25.11% of mixture Chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
Fungal Contamination P-Cymene Antifungal (moderate) 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Fungal Contamination P-Cymene Antifungal (moderate) 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Fungal Contamination P-Cymene Antifungal (moderate) NA Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
Fungal Contamination Phellandrene Antifungal (moderate) 1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Fungal Contamination Sabinene Antifungal (moderate) 26.2% of mixture Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Fungal Contamination Sabinene Antifungal (moderate) 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Fungal Contamination Sabinene Antifungal (minor) 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal Contamination Sabinene Antifungal (moderate) 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Gastric ulcer Isopulegol Gastroprotective (moderate) NA Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Gastric ulcer Limonene Gastroprotective (major) NA Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Gastric ulcer α-Bisabolol Gastroprotective (minor) NA (−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Gastric ulcer α-Pinene / β-Pinene Gastroprotective (moderate) NA Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
Glaucoma CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiglaucoma (minor) 20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
Glaucoma CBG (Cannabigerol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) NA A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
Glaucoma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.8% of mixture Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Glaucoma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (minor) 12mg Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
Glaucoma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) 2.8% of mixture Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Glaucoma THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiglaucoma (minor) 0.4% of mixture Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Glioblastoma multiforme CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (major) NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Glioblastoma multiforme THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antitumor (moderate) NA A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
Glioblastoma multiforme THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anticancer (major) NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Glutamate induced pain Linalool Antinociceptive (minor) NA Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
HIV-infected THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Appetite Stimulant (moderate) NA A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
HaCaT keratinocytes Sabinene Cytotoxicity (minor) 26.2% of mixture Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Halatosis α-Bisabolol Antimicrobial (minor) NA The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma Terpineol Anticancer (moderate) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
High heart rate and upset mood Linalool Sedative (moderate) NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
House fly (Musca domestica L.) Pulegone Insecticide (minor) 69.70% of mixture Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
House fly(Musca domestica L.) Pulegone Insecticide (minor) 69.70% of mixture Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
House fly(Musca domestica L.) Pulegone Insecticide (minor) 67.5% of mixture Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
Human chronic ulcers D-Limonene Healing property (moderate) 245mg/kg Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Human immune diseases CBG (Cannabigerol) Immunosuppressive (moderate) NA A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s Disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotective (moderate) 10mg/kg Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
Huntington’s Disease CBG (Cannabigerol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
Huntington’s Disease CBG (Cannabigerol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
Huntington’s Disease CBG (Cannabigerol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
Hyperalgesia Limonene Antihyperalgesic (moderate) 10mg/kg Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Hyperalgesia Myrcene Analgesic (minor) NA Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Hyperalgesia P-Cymene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Hyperalgesia P-Cymene Antihyperalgesic (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Hyperlipidemic Camphene Antihyperlipidemic (moderate) 30μg/gr Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Hyperlocomotion CBD (Cannabidiol) Antipsychotic (moderate) 15–60mg/kg Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Hypernociception Phellandrene Antinociceptive (major) 50mg/kg Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Immobility CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidepressant (moderate) 10–60nmol Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Immobility Limonene Antidepressant (moderate) 10mg/kg Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Immobility Phellandrene Antidepressant (moderate) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Immobility THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antidepressant (moderate) 2.5mg/kg Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Immune System related diseases CBD (Cannabidiol) Auto-immunity (moderate) 2.5 or 5mg/kg Cannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
Inflammation Borneol Antiinflammatory (major) NA Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Inflammation CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiinflammatory (major) 10mg/kg Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a (major) non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Inflammation CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (moderate) 5–40mg/kg Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
Inflammation CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
Inflammation Camphene Antinociceptive (major) NA Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Inflammation Caryophyllene oxide Antiinflammatory (major) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Inflammation Linalool Antiinflammatory (major) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Inflammation Myrcene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Inflammation P-Cymene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Inflammation Sabinene Antiinflammatory (major) 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Inflammation α-Bisabolol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
Inflammation α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Inflammation-induced hypermotility CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Cannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
Inflammation-induced hypermotility CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiinflammatory (minor) 2μM Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
Insomnia CBD (Cannabidiol) Improve Sleep (moderate) 25mg,
6 to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Intestinal inflammation THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Irritable bowel syndrome CBG (Cannabigerol) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury THCV Tetrahydrocannabivarin Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
LPS-stimulated human macrophages Terpineol-4-ol Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Leishmania species Nerolidol Antileishmanial (moderate) 100μM Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leishmania species Nerolidol Antileishmanial (moderate) NA Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Leishmania species Nerolidol Antileishmanial (moderate) 100μM Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leukemia α-Terpineol Antiproliferative (minor) NA Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury Cymene Antiinflammatory (major) NA Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages Sabinene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Liver cancer Terpineol Anticancer (moderate) 320μg/ml γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Low feeding behaviour CBN (Cannabinol) Appetite Stimulant (minor) NA Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
Lung adenocarcinoma β-Myrcene Antitumor (major) 9.29% of mixture Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Lung cancer Linalool Anticancer (minor) NA A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
MRSA CBG (Cannabigerol) Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
MRSA CBN (Cannabinol) Antibacterial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Macrophages and keratinocytes Sabinene Cytotoxicity (moderate) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Malaria Nerolidol Antimalarial (moderate) 1000mg/kg Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Malaria α-Terpineol Antimalarial (moderate) 22.6% of mixture Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Malassezia furfur Terpinolene Antifungal (major) NA Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Mechanical hyperalgesia Limonene Antihyperalgesia (moderate) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Metabolic bone disorders Δ-3-Carene Bone stimulant (moderate) NA Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Microbiological Contaminants Myrcene Antimicrobial (moderate) NA Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contaminants Myrcene Antimicrobial (moderate) 3.21% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological Contaminants Myrcene Antimicrobial minor NA Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Microbiological Contaminants Myrcene Antimicrobial minor NA Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia
Microbiological Contaminants α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antimicrobial (major) 10.5% of mixture Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contaminants α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antimicrobial (moderate) 50μg/mL Biological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers
Microbiological Contaminants α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antimicrobial (moderate) α-pinene (9.35%),
β-pinene (3.90%)
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological Contamination Borneol Antimicrobial (moderate) 4.91% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological Contamination CBC (Cannabichromene) Antimicrobial (major) NA Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Microbiological Contamination CBC (Cannabichromene) Antimicrobial (moderate) NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
Microbiological Contamination CBC (Cannabichromene) Antimicrobial (major) NA Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Microbiological Contamination Camphene Antimicrobial (moderate) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Microbiological Contamination Caryophyllene Antimicrobial (moderate) 7.8–500lg/mL Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Microbiological Contamination Caryophyllene oxide Antimicrobial (moderate) 60 to 80μg/ml Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Microbiological Contamination Cedrol Antimicrobial (minor) 6.3% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Microbiological Contamination D-Limonene Antimicrobial (moderate) 94% of mixture Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
Microbiological Contamination Farnesene Antimicrobial (major) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Microbiological Contamination Guaiol Antimicrobial (minor) 5% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
Microbiological Contamination Guaiol Antimicrobial (minor) 8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Microbiological Contamination Guaiol Antimicrobial (minor) 8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Microbiological Contamination Isoborneol Antimicrobial (moderate) 14.66% of mixture Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Microbiological Contamination Myrcene Antimicrobial (moderate) NA Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contamination P-Cymene Antimicrobial (major) NA Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Microbiological Contamination P-Cymene Antimicrobial (minor) 5.33% of mixture Antimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals
Microbiological Contamination P-Cymene Antimicrobial moderate 32.6mL/L Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis
Microbiological Contamination P-Cymene Antimicrobial (major) NA Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Microbiological Contamination Terpineol Antimicrobial (major) NA Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Microbiological Contamination Terpinolene Antimicrobial (moderate) 8.4% of mixture Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Microbiological Contamination α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antimicrobial (major) 10.5% of mixture Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contamination α-Terpineol Antimicrobial (minor) 13.0% of mixture Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Microbiological Contamination β-Cedrene Antimicrobial (moderate) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Mosquito Eucalyptol Larvicidal (minor) 100mg/L Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Mosquito Geraniol Insect repellant (major) NA Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Mosquito Geraniol Insect repellant (major) NA Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Mosquito Geraniol Insect repellant (moderate) 5% of mixture Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Multiple Sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Urinary Protection (moderate) 2.5mg An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antinociceptive (moderate) NA Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate) 2.5–120mg A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Urinary Protection (moderate) 2.5mg An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 4sprays Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 2-10inhalations Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate) 2.5–120mg A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antitremor (moderate) NA Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 33% of mixture The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 1.54% of mixture Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antinociceptive (moderate) NA Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 33% of mixture The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Multiple Sclerosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) >7.5mg Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (minor) 12mg The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (moderate) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (moderate) 4sprays Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Myocardial contractility related disorders Eucalyptol Contractile Activity (cardiac muscle) 0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Nausea CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiemetic (moderate) 200mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Nausea CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiemetic (moderate) 5mg/kg Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
Nausea CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiemetic (moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Nausea CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiemetic (moderate) 5–0.1μg/kg Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
Nausea CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5 mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Nausea CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5mg/kg Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
Nausea CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiemetic (moderate) 0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
Nausea CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Antiemetic (minor) 0.1μg/kg Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
Nausea THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Nausea THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Nausea THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Nausea THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antinausea (minor) 10mg/kg Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
Neurodegeneration THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) Neuroprotective (moderate) 10μM Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
Neuroinflammation CBG (Cannabigerol) Antinflammatory (moderate) NA A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological disorders THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic Pain Linalool Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA (–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Neuropathic Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (major) 25mg Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
Nociception Isopulegol Anotinociceptive (moderate) NA Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Nociception Linalool Antinociceptive (moderate) NA Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Obesity THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antiobesity (moderate) 3mg/kg Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
Obesity THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antiobesity (moderate) NA The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
Obesity THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antiobesity (moderate) NA Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
Obesity THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Antiobesity (moderate) NA Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
Obesity THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Stimulates neural effects (moderate) 10mg Neural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
Obesity α-Cedrene Antiobesity (moderate) 10-20mg/kg,
50-100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
Oral mucositis Borneol Antiinflammatory (moderate) 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosis Borneol Antifibrosis (moderate) 18.75 to 300μg/ml Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Osteoarthritis β-Myrcene Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis CBD (Cannabidiol) Bone Stimulant (moderate) NA Regulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Oxidative-stress related disorders CBG (Cannabigerol) Antioxidant (moderate) NA Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study.
Oxidative-stress related disorders Caryophyllene Antioxidant (moderate) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Oxidative-stress related disorders Caryophyllene oxide Antioxidant (moderate) 17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Oxidative-stress related disorders Cymene Antioxidant (moderate) NA Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
Oxidative-stress related disorders Farnesene Antioxidant (major) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Oxidative-stress related disorders Guaiol Antioxidant (moderate) 8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (major) 0.01μg/ml Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (major) NA New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (moderate) NA Antioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (moderate) NA The Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (minor) NA Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Oxidative-stress related disorders Myrcene Antioxidant (major) 0.01μg/ml Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Oxidative-stress related disorders Nerolidol Antioxidant (moderate) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
Oxidative-stress related disorders Nerolidol Antioxidant (major) NA Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Oxidative-stress related disorders Nerolidol Antioxidant (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
Oxidative-stress related disorders Nerolidol Antioxidant (major) NA Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Oxidative-stress related disorders P-Cymene Antioxidant (moderate) NA Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disorders P-Cymene Antioxidant (moderate) NA Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disorders P-Cymene Antioxidant (moderate) NA Antioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
Oxidative-stress related disorders Sabinene Antioxidant (moderate) 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Oxidative-stress related disorders THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) NA Reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Oxidative-stress related disorders THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antioxidant (minor) NA Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Oxidative-stress related disorders Terpineol Antioxidant (moderate) NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Oxidative-stress related disorders Terpinolene Antioxidant (moderate) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Oxidative-stress related disorders Terpinolene Antioxidant (moderate) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
Oxidative-stress related disorders Terpinolene Antioxidant (moderate) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Oxidative-stress related disorders α-Terpineol Antioxidant minor NA Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Oxidative-stress related disorders α-Terpineol Antioxidant (major) NA Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Oxidative-stress related disorders α-Terpineol Antioxidant (major) NA Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Oxidative-stress related disorders α-trans-Bergamotene Antioxidant (major) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disorders β-Cedrene Antioxidant (major) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Pain Borneol Analgesic (major) NA A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Pain CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Pain Camphor Analgesic (moderate) NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Pain Camphor Analgesic (moderate) 200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
Pain Camphor Analgesic (moderate) NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Pain Caryophyllene oxide Anesthetic (moderate) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Pain Caryophyllene oxide Anesthetic (moderate) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Pain Caryophyllene oxide Anesthetic (moderate) 56.9% of mixture Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Pain Eucalyptol Analgesic (moderate) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Pain Linalool Analgesic (moderate) NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Pain Linalool Analgesic (moderate) NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Pain Linalool Analgesic (moderate) NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 5mg Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 12.3ng/mL/mg The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 5mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 20mg Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 8mg Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) 10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 2.5–15mg Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) NA Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 5mg Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 20mg The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) 0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (minor) NA Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antinociceptive (moderate) 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antinociceptive (moderate) 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic (moderate) NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antinociceptive (moderate) 4mg/kg Low dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
Parkinson’s disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) 300mg Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (major) 75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate) 100-600mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Parkinson’s disease CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) 300mg Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s disease Caryophyllene Antiinflammatory (minor) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Parkinson’s disease Caryophyllene Antioxidant (moderate) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) NA Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Pediculus humanus humanus Geraniol Insect repellent (moderate) NA Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Periodontal disease β-Caryophyllene Antibacterial (major) NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria Terpineol Antimicrobial (minor) NA Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Peripheral pain response CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic (moderate) NA (+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Phytopathogenic bacteria Camphene Antibacterial (major) 5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungi Camphene Antifungal (major) NA Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Phytopathogenic fungi Cymene Antifungal (moderate) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Phytopathogenic fungi P-Cymene Antifungal (major) NA Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Phytopathogenic fungi β-Caryophyllene Antifungal (moderate) 16.98% of mixture Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Pleurisy α-trans-Bergamotene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 7% of mixture Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antidepressant (moderate) 5mg Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) 32mg Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) CBD (Cannabidiol) Anxiolytic (moderate) NA Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 Phellandrene Antiinflammatory (moderate) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Prostate cancer Geraniol Anticancer (major) NA Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Prostate cancer Linalool Anticancer (moderate) NA Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Psychotic Experiences CBD (Cannabidiol) Antipsychotic (minor) NA Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) Camphor Insecticide (major) 36.61% of mixture Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
Reflexes Linalool Anesthetic (moderate) 0.01 – 10μg/ml Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Retinal Inflammatory CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic Diseases CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (moderate) NA Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Rheumatoid arthritis β-Caryophyllene Antiinflammatory (major) 100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Schizophrenia CBD (Cannabidiol) Antipsychotic (moderate) 0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antipsychotic (moderate) 2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
Seizures Caryophyllene Neuroprotective (major) NA Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Seizures Caryophyllene Anticonvulsant (minor) 100mg/kg Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Seizures Isopulegol Anticonvulsant (major) NA Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Sepsis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (minor) NA Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults Cymene Insecticidal (moderate) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Skin tumorigenesis D-Limonene Chemopreventive (major) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
d-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
Sleep Apnea THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Improves sleep (moderate) 20mg Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Sleep deprivation Limonene Relaxant (moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Sleep deprivation Myrcene Relaxant (moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Spasticity CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (minor) NA Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Spasticity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 10 or 5mg Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Spasticity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (minor) NA Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Spasticity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 15–20mg The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
Spasticity THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasticity (moderate) 10 or 5mg Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Spinal injury CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotectant (moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
Stress Guaiol Anesthetic (minor) NA Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Superficial scald Farnesene Antioxidant (minor) NA Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation D-Limonene Antiinflammatory (major) 10mg/kg Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Tension of the blood vessel walls Borneol Vasorelaxant (moderate) NA Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Thrombosis Borneol Anthrombotic (moderate) NA The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Tonic-clonic seizure CBN (Cannabinol) Anticonvulsant (moderate) NA Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
Tourette THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antihyperactivity (moderate) NA Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Tourette’s Syndrome THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antihyperactivity (moderate) 10mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Tourette’s Syndrome THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antihyperactivity (moderate) 10mg Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Tourette’s Syndrome THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antihyperactivity (moderate) NA Oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antigastroesophageal reflux (moderate) 20mg Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Traumatic Brain Injury THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotective (moderate) NA Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
Tribolium castaneum Pulegone Insecticidal (moderate) 0.8-26.6% of mixture Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
Tumor CBN (Cannabinol) Antitumor (moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Tumor β-Caryophyllene Antitumor (major) NA β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Uveitis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiinflammatory (major) 5mg/kg Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
Vomiting THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiemetic (moderate) NA Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
Writhe Limonene Antinociceptive (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Writhe Linalool Antinociception (moderate) 25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Writhe P-Cymene Antinociceptive (major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Writhe Terpineol Analgesic (moderate) NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Condition treated Cannabinoid/ Terpene Effect Study
ALS CBN (Cannabinol) Neuroprotective (moderate) Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Anorexia THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Stimulate appetite (moderate) The cancer cachexia syndrome
Bipolar THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotective (moderate) Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone Diseases CBN (Cannabinol) Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone Diseases THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone Diseases THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Bone Stimulant (moderate) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone diseases CBD (Cannabidiol) Stimulate Bone growth (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Breast cancer CBG (Cannabigerol) Antiproliferative (moderate) The system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
Cancer CBD (Cannabidiol) Anticancer (moderate) Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
Chronic Diseases CBD (Cannabidiol) Cerebroprotective (minor) Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
Crohn’s disease THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antiinflammatory (major) Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
Depression CBC (Cannabichromene) Antidepressant (minor) Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
Epilepsy CBC (Cannabichromene) Antiepileptic (moderate) Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
Glaucoma CBN (Cannabinol) Antiglaucoma (moderate) Cannabinoids and glaucoma
Hypertension CBD (Cannabidiol) Antihypertension (moderate) Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Intestinal prokinetic CBD (Cannabidiol) Antiprokinetic (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Migraine THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuroprotective (minor) Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Neurodegenerative Disorders CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroprotective (major) Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
Osteoporosis CBN (Cannabinol) Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Osteoporosis THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Stimulate Bone Growth (minor) Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Pain THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Analgesic (moderate) Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the system? A systematic review
Psoriasis CBD (Cannabidiol) Antipsoriatic (moderate) Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Schizophrenia CBD (Cannabidiol) Antipsychosis (moderate) A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Spasm and pain THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Antispasmodic (moderate) Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
Spasticity CBD (Cannabidiol) Antispasticity (minor) Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

Cannabis has been shown to have many beneficial effects on users. The Cannabis Review® | Effects is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the molecules, found in cannabis, that have specific effects on users, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following scientific studies establish the potential effectiveness for treating specific conditions using molecules found in cannabis. The study names link to the full studies; click to view.

Effect Magnitude Cannabinoid/ Terpene Condition treated Amount used Study Grade
Analgesic major Borneol Pain NA A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Central neuropathic pain 25mg/mL Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis 2.5mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Multiple sclerosis 2-10inhalations A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Pain NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Analgesic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Peripheral pain response NA (+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Analgesic moderate Camphor Pain NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Analgesic moderate Camphor Pain NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism.
Analgesic moderate Camphor Pain 200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
Analgesic moderate Caryophyllene oxide Pain 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Analgesic moderate Eucalyptol Pain NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Analgesic moderate Limonene Algesic NA Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Analgesic moderate Linalool Pain NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice.
Analgesic moderate Linalool Pain NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Analgesic moderate Linalool Pain NA Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Analgesic minor Myrcene Hyperalgesia NA Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
Analgesic minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis 10mg Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial.
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis 2.7mg Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Analgesic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Neuropathic Pain 25mg Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 5mg Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 20mg The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 5mg Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 12.3ng/mL/mg The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 5mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 2.5mg Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 20mg Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 8mg Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 5mg Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain NA Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
Analgesic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Pain 2.5–15mg Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
Analgesic moderate Terpineol Writhe NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Anesthetic moderate Caryophyllene oxide Pain 56.9% of mixture Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Anesthetic minor Guaiol Stress NA Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Anesthetic moderate Linalool Reflexes 0.01 – 10 μg/ml Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Anthrombotic moderate Borneol Thrombosis NA The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Anti-acne major THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Acne NA Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Antiarthritic major CBD (Cannabidiol) Arthritis 5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
Antiasthma major Geraniol Asthma 100 or 200mg/kg Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Antibacterial major Bacterial contamination Ocimene 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Antibacterial major Bacterial contamination Ocimene 23.9% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
Antibacterial moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial contamination 50μg/ml Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Antibacterial moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial contamination NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Antibacterial moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Bacterial contamination NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Antibacterial moderate CBG (Cannabigerol) MRSA NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Antibacterial moderate CBN (Cannabinol) MRSA NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Antibacterial major Camphene Phytopathogenic Bacteria 5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Antibacterial moderate Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Antibacterial minor Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 10-35% of mixture Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Antibacterial moderate Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Antibacterial moderate Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 19.08% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Antibacterial moderate Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 35.3% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
Antibacterial moderate Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 27% of mixture Corresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
Antibacterial moderate Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol) Bacterial contamination NA Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Antibacterial major Geranyl Acetate Bacterial contamination 7.6% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Antibacterial major Humulene Bacterial contamination 14.21% of mixture In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Antibacterial major Myrcene Bacterial contamination NA New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Antibacterial moderate Ocimene Bacterial contamination NA Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
Antibacterial major Ocimene Bacterial contamination 0.03–40.49% of mixture Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Antibacterial moderate P-Cymene Bacterial contamination 0.25–1.25mM Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Antibacterial major α-Pinene / β-Pinene Bacterial contamination α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Antibacterial moderate α-trans-Bergamotene Buccal bacteria 29.90% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Antibacterial major β-Caryophyllene Periodontal disease NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Anticancer major Borneol Cancer NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Anticancer major Borneol Cancer NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Anticancer major Borneol Cancer NA Natural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
Anticancer moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer 200mg/kg Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Anticancer major CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Anticancer major CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer 0.5 to 7.0μl/ml In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Anticancer major CBD (Cannabidiol) Cancer NA The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Anticancer major CBD (Cannabidiol) Glioblastoma multiforme NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Anticancer moderate CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) cancer NA Cannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
Anticancer moderate Camphene Cervical cancer NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Anticancer major Caryophyllene Cancer 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Anticancer moderate Caryophyllene Cancer 7.8–500lg/mL Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Anticancer moderate Caryophyllene oxide Cancer 17.90% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Anticancer major Geraniol Prostate cancer NA Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Anticancer major Humulene Cancer 32μg/mL Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Anticancer moderate Linalool Breast cancer NA Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Anticancer moderate Linalool Colon cancer 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Anticancer minor Linalool Lung cancer NA A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Anticancer moderate Linalool Prostate cancer NA Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Anticancer major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glioblastoma multiforme NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Anticancer moderate Terpineol Cancer 3 or 6mM α-Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Anticancer moderate Terpineol Hepatocellular carcinoma 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Anticancer moderate Terpineol Liver cancer 320μg/ml γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Anticancer moderate Terpinolene Brain tumour 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Anticancer major Terpinolene Breast tumor, prostate carcinoma 8.4% of mixture Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Anticancer major α-Pinene / β-Pinene Cancer α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Anticonvulsant minor CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy NA Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
Anticonvulsant moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Anticonvulsant major CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy 400mg/kg Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
Anticonvulsant major CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy 50–422mg/kg Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
Anticonvulsant major CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Anticonvulsant moderate CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Epilepsy NA Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Anticonvulsant moderate CBN (Cannabinol) Tonic-clonic seizure NA Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
Anticonvulsant minor Caryophyllene Seizures 100mg/kg Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Anticonvulsant moderate Isopulegol Seizures NA Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Anticonvulsant moderate Linalool Epelipsy NA Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Anticonvulsant moderate THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Epelipsy 0.25mg/kg Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Antidepressant major CBC (Cannabichromene) Depression 20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Antidepressant moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression 30mg/kg Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Antidepressant moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression 15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
Antidepressant moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Depression 30mg/kg Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Antidepressant moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Immobility 10–60nmol Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Antidepressant major Camphor Depression 23.77% of mixture An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Antidepressant moderate Limonene Immobility 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Antidepressant moderate Linalool Anxiety and depression NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Antidepressant moderate Linalool Depression 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Antidepressant moderate Phellandrene Immobility 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Antidepressant moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Immobility 2.5mg/kg Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Antidepressant moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Posttraumatic stress disorder 5mg Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Antidepressant moderate α-Pinene / β-Pinene Depression NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Antidiabetic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetes mellitus 100mg PEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Antidiabetic moderate D-Limonene Diabetes mellitus NA Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Antidiabetic moderate THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Diabetes mellitus 5mg Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Antidyspnoea moderate CBD Cannabidiol) Breathing Difficulties 10mg Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
Antidystonic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Dystonia 200mg Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Dystonia 100-600mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Parkinson’s disease 100-600mg Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antiemetic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Antiemetic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea 5mg/kg Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
Antiemetic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Nausea 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Antiemetic minor CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea 0.1μg/kg Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
Antiemetic moderate CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea 0.5mg/kg Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
Antiemetic moderate CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea 5–0.1μg/kg Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
Antiemetic moderate CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea 0.5mg/kg Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
Antiemetic moderate CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Nausea 0.5μg/kg,
1.0μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Antiemetic minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 15mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 15mg Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 10mg/m2 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic 18mg/m2 An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
Antiemetic major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Emetic NA The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Multiple Sclerosis 15mg/m2 Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea NA Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Nausea 8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Antiemetic moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Vomiting NA Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy NA Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 5 – 50mg/kg Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 1 to 20mg/kg CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 200-300mg Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Antiepileptic moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Epilepsy 2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
Antifibrosis moderate Borneol Oral submucous fibrosis 18.75 to 300μg/ml Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Antifungal major Borneol Fungal contamination NA Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Antifungal major Camphene Phytopathogenic fungi NA Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Antifungal moderate Cymene Phytopathogenic fungi 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Antifungal major D-Limonene Fungal contamination NA Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Antifungal minor D-Limonene Fungal contamination 56% of mixure,
57.5% of mixure
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Antifungal major Farnesene Fungal contamination 14.6–16.4% of mixture Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Antifungal moderate Myrcene Fungal contamination 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Antifungal major Nerolidol Fungal contamination NA Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Antifungal moderate Ocimene Fungal contamination 25.11% of mixture Chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
Antifungal moderate Ocimene Fungal contamination 30.4% of mixture Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Antifungal moderate Ocimene Fungal contamination 30.4% of mixure Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Antifungal moderate P-Cymene Fungal contamination 36.5% of mixture Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
Antifungal moderate P-Cymene Fungal contamination 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Antifungal moderate P-Cymene Fungal contamination 1000ppm Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Antifungal major P-Cymene Phytopathogenic fungi NA Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Antifungal moderate Phellandrene Fungal contamination 1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Antifungal moderate Sabinene Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antifungal minor Sabinene Fungal contamination 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antifungal moderate Sabinene Fungal contamination 26.2% of mixture Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Antifungal moderate Sabinene Fungal contamination 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Antifungal moderate Sabinene Fungal contamination 31.1% of mixture In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Antifungal moderate Terpinolene Botrytis cinerea NA Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Antifungal major Terpinolene Malassezia furfur NA Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Antifungal moderate β-Caryophyllene Phytopathogenic fungi 16.98% of mixture Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Antigastroesophageal reflux moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations 20mg Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Antiglaucoma minor CBD (Cannabidiol) Glaucoma 20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
Antiglaucoma moderate CBG (Cannabigerol) Glaucoma NA A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
Antiglaucoma moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma 2.8% of mixture Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Antiglaucoma minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma < 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount] Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Antiglaucoma minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma < 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount] Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Antiglaucoma minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Glaucoma 12mg Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
Antihyperactivity moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome NA Oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
Antihyperactivity moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome 10mg Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antihyperactivity moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome 10mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Antihyperactivity moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Tourette’s Syndrome 10mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Antihyperanalgesia moderate Limonene Hyperalgesia 10mg/kg Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Antihyperanalgesia moderate Limonene Mechanical hyperalgesia 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Antihyperanalgesia moderate P-Cymene Hyperalgesia 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Antihyperanalgesia moderate Phellandrene Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia 11mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Antihyperlipidemic moderate Camphene Hyperlipidemic 30μg/gr Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Antiinflammatory major Borneol Inflammation NA Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Antiinflammatory moderate Borneol Oral mucositis 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Colitis NA The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema NA Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Edema 120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Inflammation-induced hypermotility 10mg/kg Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Antiinflammatory major CBC (Cannabichromene) Microbiological contamination NA Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) AD-related neuroinflammation 2.5 or 10mg/kg Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Acute Pancreatitis 0.5mg/kg Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Antiinflammatory moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Acute lung injury 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Chronic Pain 2.5–20mg/kg The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications NA Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Diabetic Complications NA Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
Antiinflammatory moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Inflammation 5–40mg/kg Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
Antiinflammatory minor CBD (Cannabidiol) Neuroinflammatory diseases NA Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases NA Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Antiinflammatory moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Retinal Inflammatory NA Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Antiinflammatory moderate CBD (Cannabidiol) Rheumatic diseases NA Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Antiinflammatory minor CBD (Cannabidiol) Sepsis NA Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Antiinflammatory major CBD (Cannabidiol) Uveitis 5mg/kg Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
Antiinflammatory minor CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) Inflammation 2μM Cannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
Antiinflammatory major CBG (Cannabigerol) Irritable bowel syndrome NA Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Antiinflammatory moderate CBG (Cannabigerol) Neuroinflammation NA A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Antiinflammatory moderate CBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid) Inflammation NA Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
Antiinflammatory moderate Camphor Arthritis NA Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Antiinflammatory minor Caryophyllene Parkinson’s disease 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Antiinflammatory major Caryophyllene oxide Inflammation 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Antiinflammatory major Cymene Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury NA Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Antiinflammatory major D-Limonene TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation 10mg/kg Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Antiinflammatory major Eucalyptol Acute lung injury 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Antiinflammatory major Eucalyptol Airway hypersecretion 200mg Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Antiinflammatory moderate Eucalyptol Colitis 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Antiinflammatory moderate Eucalyptol Edema NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Antiinflammatory moderate Eucalyptol Edema, Pulmonary inflammation NA Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Antiinflammatory minor Eucalyptol Mosquito larvae 100mg/L Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Antiinflammatory moderate Geraniol Atherosclerosis 100mg/kg Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Antiinflammatory major Humulene Edema NA Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Antiinflammatory major Isopulegol Edema 22.02% of mixture In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Antiinflammatory moderate Isopulegol Edema NA Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Antiinflammatory major Limonene Edema 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and AntinociceptiveAntinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Antiinflammatory moderate Linalool Edema NA α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Antiinflammatory major Linalool Inflammation NA Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Antiinflammatory moderate Linalool Neuropathic pain NA (–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Antiinflammatory moderate Menthol Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitis NA The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Antiinflammatory moderate Myrcene Inflammation 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Antiinflammatory moderate P-Cymene Hyperalgesia, Pleurisy 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Antiinflammatory moderate P-Cymene Inflammation 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Antiinflammatory moderate Phellandrene Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Antiinflammatory moderate Phytol Edema 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Antiinflammatory major Sabinene Inflammation 29% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antiinflammatory moderate Sabinene Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antiinflammatory minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Crohn’s Disease 115mg Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Antiinflammatory minor THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Edema NA Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
Antiinflammatory major THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly 200mg/kg Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Antiinflammatory moderate THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Intestinal inflammation NA Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques