The Cannabis Review®

A collection of scientific studies on cannabinoids and terpenes, arranged to help us identify and understand the unique potential of cannabis-based treatment.

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring molecules found in cannabis that are linked to a number of medical benefits and treatments. The Cannabis Review® | Cannabinoids is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the conditions cannabinoids treat, by what mechanism, and the magnitude of the effect.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of cannabinoids treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

CannabinoidCondition treatedEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
CBC (Cannabichromene)ColitisAntiinflammatory (major)NAThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
CBC (Cannabichromene)DepressionAntidepressant (major)20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
CBC (Cannabichromene)EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
CBC (Cannabichromene)EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannabichromene)EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
CBC (Cannabichromene)Inflammation-induced hypermotilityAntiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
CBC (Cannabichromene)Microbiological ContaminationAntimicrobial (major)NABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannaibichromene)Microbiological ContaminationAntimicrobial (major)NABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannaibichromene)Microbiological ContaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
CBD (Cannabidiol)AD-related neuroinflammationAntiinflammatory (major)2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
CBD (Cannabidiol)Acute PancreatitisAntiinflammatory (major)0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
CBD (Cannabidiol)Acute lung injuryAntiinflammatory (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
CBD (Cannabidiol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)NAThe marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (major)NAEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (moderate)NACannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
CBD (Cannabidiol)Anorexia(with Alzheimer’s Disease)Appetite Stimulant (major)NAEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)NAEffectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)400mgNeural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)NAInvolvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
CBD (Cannabidiol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite LossAppetite Stimulant (moderate)NACannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
CBD (Cannabidiol)ArthritisAntiarthritic (major)5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
CBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (moderate)50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (moderate)50μg/mLAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol)Brain InjuryNeuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
CBD (Cannabidiol)Brain InjuryNeuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
CBD (Cannabidiol)Brain InjuryNeuroprotectant (major)NANeuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
CBD (Cannabidiol)Brain InjuryNeuroprotectant (major)NAThe neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)Breathing DifficultiesAntidyspnoea (moderate)10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAnticancer (major)NAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAnticancer (major)0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAnticancer (major)NAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAnticancer (moderate)NAAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntiproliferative (minor)NAPhysiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntiproliferative (moderate)1–10µMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntiproliferative (moderate)1–10µMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (major)NAModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (major)NAAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (major)NAAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)NAChemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)50mMCannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)100mMCannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
CBD (Cannabidiol)Cardiovascular ComplicationsCardiac Proctection (major)NACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
CBD (Cannabidiol)Central Neuropathic PainAnalgesic (moderate)25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
CBD (Cannabidiol)Chronic PainAntiinflammatory (minor)2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
CBD (Cannabidiol)DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
CBD (Cannabidiol)DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
CBD (Cannabidiol)DiabetesAntidiabetic (moderate)100mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
CBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic ComplicationsAntiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
CBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy)Antiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
CBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy)Antiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
CBD (Cannabidiol)DystoniaAntidystonic (moderate)100 to 600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol)DystoniaAntidystonic (moderate)200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)NACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
CBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)5-50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
CBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy(Seizure state)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy(Seizure state)Anticonvulsant (minor)NACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
CBD (Cannabidiol)Facial Emotion RecognitionImproves recognition of emotional facial (moderate)16mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
CBD (Cannabidiol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
CBD (Cannabidiol)Glioblastoma multiformeAnticancer (major)NAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
CBD (Cannabidiol)Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotective (moderate)10mg/kgControlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
CBD (Cannabidiol)HyperlocomotionAntipsychotic (moderate)15–60mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
CBD (Cannabidiol)ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)Immune System related diseasesAuto-immunity (moderate)2.5 or 5mg/kgCannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
CBD (Cannabidiol)InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
CBD (Cannabidiol)InsomniaImprove Sleep (moderate)25mg,
6mg to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntinociceptive (moderate)NACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntispasticity (minor)12mgThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NAClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)4spraysClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisNeuroprotection (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
CBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisUrinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
CBD (Cannabidiol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
CBD (Cannabidiol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
CBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroinflammatory diseasesAntiinflammatory (minor)NAAnti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
CBD (Cannabidiol)OsteoporosisBone Stimulant (moderate)NARegulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
CBD (Cannabidiol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
CBD (Cannabidiol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
CBD (Cannabidiol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
CBD (Cannabidiol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
CBD (Cannabidiol)Parkinson’s DiseaseAntidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)300mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
CBD (Cannabidiol)Parkinson’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol)Parkinson’s diseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol)Parkinson’s diseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CBD (Cannabidiol)Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesAntiinflammatory (major)NAPathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
CBD (Cannabidiol)Peripheral pain responseAnalgesic (moderate)NA(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
CBD (Cannabidiol)Posttraumatic stress disorderAnxiolytic (moderate)NACannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
CBD (Cannabidiol)Posttraumatic stress disorderAnxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol)Posttraumatic stress disorderAnxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CBD (Cannabidiol)Psychotic ExperiencesAntipsychotic (minor)NACannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
CBD (Cannabidiol)Retinal InflammatoryAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
CBD (Cannabidiol)Rheumatic DiseasesAntiinflammatory (moderate)NACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
CBD (Cannabidiol)SchizophreniaAntipsychotic (moderate)0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
CBD (Cannabidiol)SepsisAntiinflammatory (minor)NAEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
CBD (Cannabidiol)SpasticityAntispasticity (minor)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
CBD (Cannabidiol)Spinal InjuryNeuroprotectant (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
CBD (Cannabidiol)UveitisAntiinflammatory (major)5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)CancerAnticancer (moderate)NACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)InflammationAntiinflammatory (minor)2μMCannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)NauseaAntiemetic (minor)0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)NACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)NACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBG (Cannabigerol)CancerAntitumor (major)N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CBG (Cannabigerol)Cancer(Melanoma)Antitumor (moderate)31.31μ/mLSynthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CBG (Cannabigerol)Cancer(Oral epitheloid)Antitumor (major)NABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CBG (Cannabigerol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)NAA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
CBG (Cannabigerol)Human immune diseasesImmunosuppressive (moderate)NAA Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
CBG (Cannabigerol)Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)NAVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
CBG (Cannabigerol)Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)NANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
CBG (Cannabigerol)Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)NANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
CBG (Cannabigerol)InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa.
CBG (Cannabigerol)Irritable bowel syndromeAntiinflammatory (major)NABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
CBG (Cannabigerol)MRSAAntibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBG (Cannabigerol)NeuroinflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
CBG (Cannabigerol)Oxidative-stress related disordersAntioxidant (moderate)NACannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
CBN (Cannabinol)ALSNeuroprotectant (moderate)5mg/kgCannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
CBN (Cannabinol)Low feeding behaviourAppetite Stimulant (minor)NACannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
CBN (Cannabinol)MRSAAntibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN (Cannabinol)PainAnalgesic (major)NAComparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats
CBN (Cannabinol)Tonic-clonic seizureAnticonvulsant (moderate)NAAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
CBN (Cannabinol)TumorAntitumor (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ADHDImproves behaviour (moderate)71ng/mLCannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ADHDNeuroprotectant (moderate)NAOral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ALSNeuroprotectant (moderate)NAThe CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Acute psychosocial stressAnxiolytic (moderate)7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (major)NAThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (minor)4.5mgTetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)NASafety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (major)NAThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnalgesicAnalgesic (minor)10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnalgesicAntiglaucoma (moderate)2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnalgesicAntiglaucoma (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (moderate)NAA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (moderate)2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (moderate)2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (minor)7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)NAA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)NACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AsthmaBronchodilating activity (moderate)500mgEffects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AsthmaBronchodilating activity (moderate)15mgAcute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AsthmaBronchodilating activity (moderate)200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AsthmaBronchodilating activity (moderate)200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Breathing DifficultiesBronchodilating activity (moderate)20mgAcute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Chemosensory alterationsAppetite Stimulant (major)2.5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Crohn’s DiseaseAntiinflammatory (minor)115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)DementiaNeuroprotective (moderate)3mgEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EdemaAntiinflammatory (minor)NAAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (major)NAAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (minor)NATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticAntiemetic (moderate)5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegalyAntileukemic (major)200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)NATopical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)0.4% of mixtureEfficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glioblastoma multiformeAnticaner (major)NAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glioblastoma multiformeAntitumor (moderate)NAA pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)HIV-infectedAppetite Stimulant (moderate)NAA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Intestinal inflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)10mgA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntinociceptive (moderate)NACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)2-10inhalationsClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)7.5mgDelta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)1.54% of mixtureShort-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NACannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NASafety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)4spraysClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NACannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntispasticity (moderate)NAThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisAntitremor (moderate)NATetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisImprove neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisUrinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)NAAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neurological disordersNeuroprotectant (moderate)NACannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuropathic PainAnalgesic (major)25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Oxidative StressAntioxidant (minor)NAUnderstanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Oxidative StressNeuroprotectant (moderate)NAReactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)NAOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)NAIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (minor)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)10mg,
20mg
The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)12.3ng/mL/mgThe analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAnalgesic (moderate)NAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAntinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAntinociceptive (moderate)4mg/kgLow dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainAntinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Posttraumatic stress disorderAntidepressant (moderate)5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Posttraumatic stress disorderAnxiolytic (moderate)NACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)SchizophreniaAntipsychotic (moderate)2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Sleep ApneaImproves sleep (moderate)20mgAround-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)SpasticityAntispacity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)SpasticityAntispasticity (minor)NASmoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)SpasticityAntispasticity (moderate)15–20mgThe treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)SpasticityAntispasticity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s SyndromeAntihyperactivity (moderate)NAOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s SyndromeAntihyperactivity (moderate)10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s SyndromeAntihyperactivity (moderate)10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s SyndromeAntispacity (moderate)10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxationsAntigastroesophageal reflux (moderate)20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Traumatic Brain InjuryNeuroprotective (moderate)NAEffect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)VomitingAntiemetic (moderate)NATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)NeurodegenerationNeuroprotective (moderate)10μMEffects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)AcneAnti-acne (major)NADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)DiabetesAntidiabetic (moderate)5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)EpelipsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Ischaemia-reperfusionAntiinflammation (moderate)NAΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)NauseaAntinausea (minor)10mg/kgEvaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)NAEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityStimulates neural effects (moderate)10mgNeural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)NAThe cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)NAEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)3mg/kgSynthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

CannabinoidCondition treatedEffectStudy
CBC (Cannabichromene)DepressionAntidepressant (minor)Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
CBC (Cannabichromene)EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
CBD (Cannabidiol)Bone diseasesStimulate Bone growth (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerAnticancer (moderate)Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
CBD (Cannabidiol)Chronic DiseasesCerebroprotective (minor)Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
CBD (Cannabidiol)HypertensionAntihypertension (moderate)Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
CBD (Cannabidiol)Intestinal prokineticAntiprokinetic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol)Neurodegenerative DisordersNeuroprotective (major)Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
CBD (Cannabidiol)PsoriasisAntipsoriatic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBD (Cannabidiol)SchizophreniaAntipsychosis (moderate)A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
CBD (Cannabidiol)SpasticityAntispasticity (minor)Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
CBG (Cannabigerol)Breast cancerAntiproliferative (moderate)The system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
CBN (Cannabinol)ALSNeuroprotective (moderate)Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
CBN (Cannabinol)Bone DiseasesStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
CBN (Cannabinol)GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)Cannabinoids and glaucoma
CBN (Cannabinol)OsteoporosisStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnorexiaStimulate appetite (moderate)The cancer cachexia syndrome
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)BipolarNeuroprotective (moderate)Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bone DiseasesStimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Crohn’s diseaseAntiinflammatory (major)Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)MigraineNeuroprotective (minor)Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)OsteoporosisStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Spasm and painAntispasmodic (moderate)Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Bone DiseasesBone Stimulant (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)PainAnalgesic (moderate)Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the system? A systematic review

Terpenes are molecules partially responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. They are naturally present in a number of fruits, spices, herbs and other vegetation, and research shows they have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Terpenes is a collection of scientific studies that identify conditions treated by terpenes, by what mechanism, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of the terpene used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of terpenes treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

TerpenesCondition treatedEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
BorneolCancerAnticancer (1)NANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
BorneolCancerAnticancer (2)NANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)CancerAnticancer (2)NANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (2)NABorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)NAAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)4.91% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymusvulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)Oral mucositisAntiinflammatory (2)1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)Oral submucous fibrosisAntifibrosis (2)18.75 to 300 μg/mLInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)PainAnalgesics (4)NAA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)Tension of the blood vessel wallsVasorelaxant (2)NAInvestigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)ThrombosisAnthrombotic (2)NAThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Cervical cancerAnticancer (1)NAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)HyperlipidemicAntihyperlipidemic (2)30μg/mLCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Inflammation and pain-related processesAntinociceptive (2)NAAntinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)NAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Phytopathogenic bacteriaAntibacterial (2)5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (1)NAChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
CamphorPainAnalgesic (2)200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600 μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
CamphorPainAnalgesic (2)NACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora)ArthritisAntiinflammatory (1)NAStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora)DepressionAntidepressant (1)23.77% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora)PainAnalgesic (2)NACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora)Red imported fire antInsecticide (1)36.61% of mixtureFumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationundefined (1)19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)27.0% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
CaryophylleneCancerAnticancer (2)7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
CaryophylleneCancerAnticancer (1)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CaryophylleneDepression and anxietyAnxiolytic (2)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
CaryophylleneDepression and anxietyAnxiolytic (2)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (1)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)CancerAnticancer (1)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Cerebral Ischemic InjuryNeuroprotective (2)10mg/kgProtective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Depression and anxietyAnxiolytic (2)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (2)7.8–500 lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Oxidative StressAntioxidant (1)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Parkinson’s diseaseAntiinflammatory (2)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Parkinson’s diseaseAntioxidant (2)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Parkinson’s diseaseAntibacterial (2)NAUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Periodontal diseaseAntibacterial (2)NAUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (1)16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Rheumatoid arthritisAntiinflammatory (2)100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)SeizuresAnticonvulsant (2)100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)SeizuresNeuroprotective (2)NANeuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)TumorAntitumor (2)NAβ-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)CancerAnticancer (1)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)Microbiological contaminationsAntimicrobial (1)60 to 80μg/mlCompositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)Oxidative StressAntioxidant (1)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)PainAnalgesic (2)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)PainAnesthetic (1)56.90% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Cedrol (Also found in conifer oils (Cupressus and Juniperus)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)6.3% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryAntiinflammatory (2)NAProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (1)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adultsInsecticidal (1)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
D-LimoneneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)NARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
D-LimoneneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)56% and 57.5% of mixtureAntifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Anxiety and painNeuroprotective (1)15.21% of mixtureNeuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Chronic ulcersHealing property (1)245mg/kgHealing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Dermatitis,Skin lesionSkin Repair (2)NASkin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Diabetes mellitusAntidiabetic (1)NAProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Food-related microorganismsAntimicrobial (2)NAEffects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)NARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)94% of mixtureOrange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Skin tumorigenesisAntitumor (2)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)TNBS-induced intestinal inflammationAntiinflammatory (2)10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Acute lung injuryAntiinflammatory (2)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Adult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)Larvicida (2)NA1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Airway hypersecretionAntiinflammatory (4)200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)ColitisAntiinflammatory (2)200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Edema,Pulmonary inflammationAntiinflammatory (2)NATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Mosquito larvaeLarvicidal (2)100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Myocardial contractility related disordersContractile Activity (1)0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)PainAnalgesic (2)NAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (1)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)Superficial scaldAntioxidant (2)NASuperficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (2)NAScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)Aedes albopictusInsect repellent (2)0.250μg/cm3Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)AsthmaAntiasthma (2)100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)AtherosclerosisAntiinflammatory (2)100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)Buccal pouch carcinogenesisAnticancer (2)250mg/kgChemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesispathway
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)MosquitoInsect repellant (2)NAEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)Mosquito,Sand FlyInsect repellant (2)5% of mixtureIndoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)Pediculus humanus humanusInsect repellant (1)NARepellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type)Prostate cancerAnticancer (2)NAGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Geranyl Acetate (Also found in citronella oil, lemongrass oil, sassafras oil, rose oil)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
GuaiolMicrobiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
GuaiolMicrobiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)5% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)8.2% of mixtureChemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (1)8.2% of mixtureChemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil)StressAnesthetic (1)NAAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)CancerAnticancer (2)32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)CancerAntitumor (1)NAAntitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isoborneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera, kaempferia galanga)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)14.66% of mixtureGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
IsopulegolEdemaAntiinflammatory (2)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
IsopulegolEdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal)Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (2)NAGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal)NociceptionAnotinociceptive (2)NAAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal)SeizuresAnticonvulsant (2)NAEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
LimoneneAnxietyAnxiolytic (2)3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
LimoneneAnxietyAnxiolytic (2)0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
LimoneneAnxietyAnxiolytic (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)AlgesicAnalgesic (2)NAInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)AnxietyAnxiolytic (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (1)NAGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)HyperalgesiaAntihyperalgesia (2)10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)ImmobilityAntidepressant (2)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Mechanical hyperalgesiaAntihyperanalgesia (2)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)Sleep deprivationRelaxant (2)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)WritheAntinociceptive (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
LinaloolAnxietyAnxiolytic (2)NAEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
LinaloolAnxietyAnxiolytic (2)0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
LinaloolPainAnalgesic (2)NAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
LinaloolPainAnalgesic (2)NAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)AnxietyAnxiolytic (2)NAEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Anxiety and depressionAntidepressant (2)NALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Autonomic nerve activity, mood statesSedative (2)NASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Breast cancerAnticancer (2)NALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)CancerAntitumor (2)NALinalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Colon cancerAnticancer (2)100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)DepressionAntidepressant (2)50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (2)NAAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Glutamate induced painAntinociceptive (2)NAEvidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)High heart rate and upset moodSedative (2)NASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)NAAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Lung cancerAnticancer (2)NAA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Neuropathic painAntiinflammatory (2)NA(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)NociceptionAntinociceptive (2)NAIntraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)PainAnalgesic (2)NAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)Prostate cancerAnticancer (2)NAAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)ReflexesAnesthetic (1)0.01 – 10μg/mLLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)WritheAntinociception (2)25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Menthol (Also found in peppermint, eucalyptus & pennyroyal)Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitisAntiinflammatory (2)NAThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
MyrceneOxidative stressAntioxidant (1)NAAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
MyrceneOxidative stressAntioxidant (1)NANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
MyrceneOxidative stressAntioxidant (2)NAAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
MyrceneOxidative stressAntioxidant (1)NAThe Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
MyrceneOxidative stressAntioxidant (2)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (1)NANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymesAntimutagenic (2)1,
000μg/mL
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)HyperalgesiaAnalgesic (2)NAMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)InflammationAntiinflammatory (1)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)NAAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (2)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Sleep deprivationRelaxant (2)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
NerolidolOxidative stressAntioxidant (2)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
NerolidolOxidative stressAntioxidant (2)NAAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
NerolidolOxidative stressAntioxidant (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)NAEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)Leishmania speciesAntileishmanial (2)100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)LeishmaniasisAntileishmanial (1)NAAntileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)MalariaAntimalarial (2)1000mg/kgAntimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (2)NAAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
OcimeneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)NAAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
OcimeneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
OcimeneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
OcimeneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
OcimeneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Ocimene (Also found in basil, parsley & mint)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Ocimene (Also found in basil, parsley & mint)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
P-CymeneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
P-CymeneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)36.5% of mixtureAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
P-CymeneOxidative stressAntifungal (1)NAAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
P-CymeneOxidative stressAntifungal (1)NAAntioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
P-CymeneOxidative stressAntifungal (2)NAEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (2)0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Hyperalgesia,PleurisyAntihyperalgesic (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Hyperalgesia,PleurisyAntiinflammatory (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Microbiological ContaminantsAntimicrobial (1)32.6mg/LAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (2)NAEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (1)NAAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)WritheAntinociceptive (2)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)Cold and mechanical hyperalgesiaAntihyperanalgesia (2)11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (2)1.7mg/L,
1.8mg/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)HypernociceptionAntinociceptive (2)50mg/kgAntinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)ImmobilityAntidepressant (1)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6Antiinflammatory (2)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Phytol (Also found in green tea)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
PulegoneHouse fly,Musca domestica (L.)Insecticidal (1)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
PulegoneHouse fly,Musca domestica (L.)Insecticidal (1)67.5% of mixtureMolecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
Pulegone (Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy)House fly,Musca domestica (L.)Insecticidal (1)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
Pulegone (Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy)Tribolium castaneumInsecticidal (1)0.8-26.6% of mixtureChemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
SabineneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
SabineneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
SabineneFungal contaminationAntifungal (1)29.0% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformansAntifungal (1)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (1)31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)HaCaT keratinocytesCytotoxicity (1)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)InflammationAntiinflammatory (1)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophagesAntiinflammatory (1)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Macrophages and keratinocytesCytotoxicity (1)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (1)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
TerpineolCancerAntiproliferative (2)NAEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
TerpineolCancerAnticancer (2)3mM,
6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
TerpineolEdemaAntiinflammatory (1)NAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
TerpineolHepatocellular carcinomaAnticancer (2)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
TerpineolLiver cancerAnticancer (2)320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
TerpineolMicrobiological contaminationAntimicrobial (2)NAAntimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
TerpineolOxidative StressAntioxidant (2)NAEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
TerpineolPeriodontopathic and cariogenic bacteriaAntimicrobial (2)NAAntimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
TerpineolWritheAnalgesic (1)NAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol-4-o (Also found in cajuput oil, pine oil & petitgrain oil)LPS-stimulated human macrophagesAntiinflammatory (2)NATerpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
TerpinoleneOxidative StressAntioxidant (2)11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
TerpinoleneOxidative StressAntioxidant (2)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Botrytis cinereaAntifungal (1)NAAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Brain tumourAnticancer (2)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Breast tumor,prostate carcinomaAnticancer (1)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Malassezia furfurAntifungal (1)NAChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (2)11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Valencene (Also found in valencia oranges)Ingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household products.Addetive Ingredient (2)NACitrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAPharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)Edema and subchronic inflammationAntiinflammatory (1)NAComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)Malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquitoLarvicidal (1)NAFrom Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)Metabolic bone disordersBone stimulant (2)NALow Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)MosquitoesLarvicidal (1)12.5% of the mixtureFrom Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)AnxietyAnxiolytic (2)NAExpression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (1)19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)CancerAnticancer (1)19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)DepressionAntidepressant (2)NALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (1)NAGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)NAα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)EdemaAntiinflammatory (2)NAAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (2)NA(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)HalatosisAntimicrobial (2)NAThe antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)InflammationAntiinflammatory (2)NAInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil)ObesityAntiobesity (2)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
α-TerpineolOxidative StressAntioxidant (1)NAAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-TerpineolOxidative StressAntioxidant (1)NAInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Breast cancerCytotoxicity (2)5.4μg/mLThe effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Cervical cancerCytotoxicity (2)12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Chronic myelogenus leukemiaAntiproliferative (1)12.66% of mixturePhytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)EdemaAntiinflammatory (1)6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)LeukemiaAntiproliferative (1)NAAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)MalariaAntimalarial (1)22.6% of mixtureComposition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)13.0% of mixtureAntimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Oxidative StressAntioxidant (1)NAInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil)Buccal bacteriaAntibacterial (1)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (1)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil)PleurisyAntiinflammatory (1)7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
β-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (1)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
β-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil)Oxidative stressAntioxidant (1)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
β-Myrcene (Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass)Lung adenocarcinomaAntitumor (1)9.29% of mixtureComposition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
β-Myrcene (Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass)OsteoarthritisAntiinflammatory (2)NAEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

TerpeneCondition treatedEffectStudy
Beta-MyrceneCancerAntitumor (moderate)Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Beta-MyrceneSpasmAntispasm (minor)Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
BorneolInsomniaAnti-insomnia (moderate)Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
CaryophylleneCancerAnticancer (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
CaryophyllenePainAnalgesic (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideCancerAnticancer (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideOxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxidePainAnalgesic (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
EucalyptolCoughCough suppresant (minor)Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
GeraniolTumorAntitumor (major)The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
LimoneneCancerAnticancer (major)Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
MyrceneInflammationAntiinflammatory (major)Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
α-BisabololInflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils

Cannabis has been shown to have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Conditions is a collection of scientific studies that identify the molecules, found in cannabis, that treat specific conditions, by what effect, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of condition treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Condition treatedCannabinoid/ TerpeneEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
AD-related NeuroinflammationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
ADHDTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAOral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ADHDTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Improves behaviour (moderate)71ng/mLCannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
ALSCBN (Cannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)5mg/kgCannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
ALSTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAThe CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
AcneTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Anti-acne (major)NADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Acute Lung InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Acute Lung InjuryEucalyptolAntiinflammatory (major)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Acute PancreatitisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Acute Psychosocial StressTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (moderate)7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
Adult Aedes Aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)EucalyptolLarvicidal (moderate)NA1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Aedes albopictusGeraniolInsect repellent (major)0.250μg/cm3Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Airway hypersecretionEucalyptolAntiinflammatory (major)200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
AlgesicLimoneneAnalgesic (moderate)NAInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Alzheimer’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (major)NAThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NASafety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
Alzheimer’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (minor)4.5mgTetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
Alzheimer’s DiseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAThe marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
Alzheimer’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (major)NAThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
AnalgesicTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
AnalgesicTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
AnorexiaCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (major)NAEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
AnorexiaCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (major)NAEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
AnorexiaCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)NACannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
AnorexiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)NAA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
AnorexiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)NAA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
AnorexiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (major)400mgNeural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)NAInvolvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (major)NAEffectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
AnxietyD-LimoneneNeuroprotective (moderate)15.21% of mixtureNeuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
AnxietyLimoneneAnxiolytic (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
AnxietyLimoneneAnxiolytic (major)0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
AnxietyLimoneneAnxiolytic (moderate)3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
AnxietyLimoneneAnxiolytic (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
AnxietyLinaloolAnxiolytic (major)NAEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
AnxietyLinaloolAnxiolytic (major)NAEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
AnxietyLinaloolAnxiolytic (moderate)0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
AnxietyLinaloolAntidepressant (moderate)NALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
AnxietyTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (minor)7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
AnxietyTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (moderate)NACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
AnxietyTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (moderate)NACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Anxietyα-Pinene / β-PineneAnxiolytic (moderate)NAExpression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Appetite LossCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)NACannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
ArthritisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiarthritic (major)5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
ArthritisCamphorAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
AsthmaGeraniolAntiasthma (major)100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
AsthmaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)500mgAcute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
AsthmaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)20mgEffects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
AsthmaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)15mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
AsthmaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)15mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
AtherosclerosisGeraniolAntiinflammatory (moderate)100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood statesLinaloolSedative (moderate)NASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Bacterial ContaminationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antibacterial (moderate)50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Bacterial ContaminationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Bacterial ContaminationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antibacterial (moderate)50μg/mLAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (minor)10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (moderate)19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (moderate)35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (moderate)27% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
Bacterial ContaminationCaryophylleneAntibacterial (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Bacterial ContaminationFenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)Antibacterial (moderate)NAScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Bacterial ContaminationGeranyl AcetateAntibacterial (major)7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Bacterial ContaminationHumuleneAntibacterial (major)14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Bacterial ContaminationMyrceneAntibacterial (major)NANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Bacterial ContaminationOcimeneAntibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
Bacterial ContaminationOcimeneAntibacterial (major)0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Bacterial ContaminationOcimeneAntibacterial (major)23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
Bacterial ContaminationOcimeneAntibacterial (major)0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Bacterial ContaminationP-CymeneAntibacterial (moderate)0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Bacterial Contaminationα-Pinene / β-PineneAntibacterial (major)α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Botrytis CinereaTerpinoleneAntifungal (moderate)NAAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Brain InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)NANeuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
Brain InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)NAThe neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
Brain InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Brain tumourTerpinoleneAnticancer (moderate)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast CancerLinaloolAnticancer (moderate)NALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Breast CancerTerpinoleneAnticancer (major)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Breast Cancerα-TerpineolBreast cancer (moderate)5.4μg/mLThe effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Breathing DifficultiesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidyspnoea (moderate)10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
Breathing DifficultiesTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)20mgAcute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Buccal bacteriaGeraniolChemopreventive (major)250mg/kgChemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Buccal bacteriaα-trans-BergamoteneAntibacterial (moderate)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (major)NAModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)50mMCannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)NAChemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (major)NAAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
CBD(Cannabidiol)CancerAntitumor (moderate)100mMCannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
CancerBorneolAnticancer (major)NANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
CancerBorneolAnticancer (major)NANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
CancerBorneolAnticancer (major)NANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Antitumor (major)NAModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (moderate)NAAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (major)NAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (major)NAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiproliferative (moderate)1–10μMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (major)0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiproliferative (minor)NAPhysiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiproliferative (moderate)1–10μMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
CancerCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Anticancer (moderate)NACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CancerCBG (Cannabigerol)Antitumor (moderate)31.31μ/mLSynthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CancerCBG (Cannabigerol)Antitumor (major)NABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CancerCBG (Cannabigerol)Antitumor (major)NABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
CancerCaryophylleneAnticancer (major)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CancerCaryophylleneAnticancer (major)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CancerCaryophylleneAnticancer (moderate)7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
CancerCaryophyllene oxideAnticancer (moderate)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CancerHumuleneAntitumor (moderate)NAAntitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
CancerHumuleneAnticancer (major)32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
CancerLinaloolAntitumor (moderate)NALinalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
CancerTerpineolAnticancer (moderate)3 or 6mMα Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
CancerTerpineolAntiproliferative (moderate)NAEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Cancerα-Pinene / β-PineneAnticancer (major)α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Cardiovascular ComplicationsCBD (Cannabidiol)Cardiac Proctection (major)NACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central neuropathic painCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Cerebral Ischemic InjuryCaryophylleneNeuroprotective (major)10mg/kgProtective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymesMyrceneAntimutagenic (minor)1,
000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Cervical cancerCampheneAnticancer (moderate)NAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Cervical cancerCampheneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Cervical cancerα-TerpineolCytotoxicity (moderate)12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Chronic PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (minor)2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Chronic inflammatory disordersMentholAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Chronic myelogenus leukemiaα-TerpineolAntiproliferative (major)12.66% of mixturePhytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Cold and mechanical hyperalgesiaPhellandreneAntihyperalgesia (moderate)11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
ColitisCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)NAThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
ColitisEucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Colon cancerLinaloolAnticancer (moderate)100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Crohn’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (minor)115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
DementiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotective (moderate)3mgEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
DepressionCBC (Cannabichromene)Antidepressant (major)20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
DepressionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
DepressionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
DepressionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
DepressionCamphorAntidepressant (moderate)4.91% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
DepressionCaryophylleneAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
DepressionCaryophylleneAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
DepressionCaryophylleneAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
DepressionLinaloolAntidepressant (moderate)50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Depressionα-Pinene / β-PineneAntidepressant (moderate)NALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Dermatitis, Skin lesionD-LimoneneSkin Repair (major)NASkin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformansSabineneAntifungal (moderate)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
DiabetesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidiabetic (moderate)100mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
DiabetesD-LimoneneAntidiabetic (moderate)NAProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
DiabetesTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antidiabetic (moderate)5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetic ComplicationsCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy)CBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Complications(Diabetic cardiomyopathy)CBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)NACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
DystoniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)100 to 600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
DystoniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidystonic (moderate)200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
EdemaCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
EdemaEucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
EdemaHumuleneAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
EdemaIsopulegolAntiinflammatory (major)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
EdemaLimoneneAntiinflammatory (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
EdemaLinaloolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
EdemaPhytolAntiinflammatory (moderate)7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
EdemaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (minor)NAAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
EdemaTerpineolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
EdemaΔ-3-CareneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAPharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edemaα-BisabololAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Edemaα-TerpineolAntiinflammatory (major)6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Edema(carrageenin-induced)CBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Edema(carrageenin-induced)CBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Edema(carrageenin-induced)EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Edema(carrageenin-induced)EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema(carrageenin-induced)IsopulegolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Edema(carrageenin-induced)IsopulegolAntiinflammatory (major)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Edema(carrageenin-induced)Δ-3-CareneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAPharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema(carrageenin-induced)Δ-3-CareneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (minor)NATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NADelta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (major)NAAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)NACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)5 – 50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
EpilepsyCBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)NACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
EpilepsyLinaloolAnticonvulsant (moderate)NAAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
EpilepsyTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Epilepsy (Seizure state)CBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
Epilepsy (Seizure state)CBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)NACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Epilepsy (Seizure state)CBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
Epilepsy(Seizure state)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Epilepsy(Seizure state)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anticonvulsant (minor)NACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
Facial Emotion RecognitionCBD (Cannabidiol)Improves recognition of emotional facial (moderate)16mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Food-related microorganismsD-LimoneneAntimicrobial (major)NAEffects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegalyTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antileukemic (major)200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Fungal ContaminationBorneolAntifungal (major)36.5% of mixtureBorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Fungal ContaminationD-LimoneneAntifungal (major)56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Fungal ContaminationD-LimoneneAntifungal (major)NARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Fungal ContaminationD-LimoneneAntifungal (minor)56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Fungal ContaminationFarneseneAntifungal (major)14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Fungal ContaminationMyrceneAntifungal (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Fungal ContaminationNerolidolAntifungal (major)NAEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Fungal ContaminationOcimeneAntifungal (moderate)30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Fungal ContaminationOcimeneAntifungal (moderate)30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
Fungal ContaminationOcimeneAntifungal (moderate)25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
Fungal ContaminationP-CymeneAntifungal (moderate)1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Fungal ContaminationP-CymeneAntifungal (moderate)1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Fungal ContaminationP-CymeneAntifungal (moderate)NAAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
Fungal ContaminationPhellandreneAntifungal (moderate)1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Fungal ContaminationSabineneAntifungal (moderate)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Fungal ContaminationSabineneAntifungal (moderate)31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Fungal ContaminationSabineneAntifungal (minor)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal ContaminationSabineneAntifungal (moderate)31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Gastric ulcerIsopulegolGastroprotective (moderate)NAGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Gastric ulcerLimoneneGastroprotective (major)NAGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Gastric ulcerα-BisabololGastroprotective (minor)NA(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Gastric ulcerα-Pinene / β-PineneGastroprotective (moderate)NAGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
GlaucomaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiglaucoma (minor)20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
GlaucomaCBG (Cannabigerol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)NAA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
GlaucomaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
GlaucomaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (minor)12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
GlaucomaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
GlaucomaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (minor)0.4% of mixtureTopical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Glioblastoma multiformeCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (major)NAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Glioblastoma multiformeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antitumor (moderate)NAA pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
Glioblastoma multiformeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anticancer (major)NAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Glutamate induced painLinaloolAntinociceptive (minor)NAEvidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
HIV-infectedTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)NAA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
HaCaT keratinocytesSabineneCytotoxicity (minor)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Halatosisα-BisabololAntimicrobial (minor)NAThe antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Hepatocellular carcinomaTerpineolAnticancer (moderate)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
High heart rate and upset moodLinaloolSedative (moderate)NASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
House fly (Musca domestica L.)PulegoneInsecticide (minor)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
House fly(Musca domestica L.)PulegoneInsecticide (minor)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
House fly(Musca domestica L.)PulegoneInsecticide (minor)67.5% of mixtureMolecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
Human chronic ulcersD-LimoneneHealing property (moderate)245mg/kgHealing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Human immune diseasesCBG (Cannabigerol)Immunosuppressive (moderate)NAA Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s DiseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotective (moderate)10mg/kgControlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
Huntington’s DiseaseCBG (Cannabigerol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
Huntington’s DiseaseCBG (Cannabigerol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
Huntington’s DiseaseCBG (Cannabigerol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
HyperalgesiaLimoneneAntihyperalgesic (moderate)10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
HyperalgesiaMyrceneAnalgesic (minor)NAMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
HyperalgesiaP-CymeneAntiinflammatory (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
HyperalgesiaP-CymeneAntihyperalgesic (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
HyperlipidemicCampheneAntihyperlipidemic (moderate)30μg/grCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
HyperlocomotionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (moderate)15–60mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
HypernociceptionPhellandreneAntinociceptive (major)50mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
ImmobilityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
ImmobilityLimoneneAntidepressant (moderate)10mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
ImmobilityPhellandreneAntidepressant (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
ImmobilityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antidepressant (moderate)2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Immune System related diseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Auto-immunity (moderate)2.5 or 5mg/kgCannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
InflammationBorneolAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
InflammationCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a (major) non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
InflammationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
InflammationCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiinflammatory (moderate)NAEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
InflammationCampheneAntinociceptive (major)NAAntinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
InflammationCaryophyllene oxideAntiinflammatory (major)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
InflammationLinaloolAntiinflammatory (major)NAAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
InflammationMyrceneAntiinflammatory (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
InflammationP-CymeneAntiinflammatory (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
InflammationSabineneAntiinflammatory (major)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Inflammationα-BisabololAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
Inflammationα-Pinene / β-PineneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Inflammation-induced hypermotilityCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiinflammatory (moderate)NACannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
Inflammation-induced hypermotilityCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiinflammatory (minor)2μMEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
InsomniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Improve Sleep (moderate)25mg,
6 to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Intestinal inflammationTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)NAChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Irritable bowel syndromeCBG (Cannabigerol)Antiinflammatory (major)NABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Ischaemia-reperfusion injuryTHCV TetrahydrocannabivarinAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
LPS-stimulated human macrophagesTerpineol-4-olAntiinflammatory (moderate)NATerpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Leishmania speciesNerolidolAntileishmanial (moderate)100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leishmania speciesNerolidolAntileishmanial (moderate)NAAntileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Leishmania speciesNerolidolAntileishmanial (moderate)100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leukemiaα-TerpineolAntiproliferative (minor)NAAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryCymeneAntiinflammatory (major)NAProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophagesSabineneAntiinflammatory (moderate)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Liver cancerTerpineolAnticancer (moderate)320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Low feeding behaviourCBN (Cannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (minor)NACannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
Lung adenocarcinomaβ-MyrceneAntitumor (major)9.29% of mixtureComposition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Lung cancerLinaloolAnticancer (minor)NAA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
MRSACBG (Cannabigerol)Antibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
MRSACBN (Cannabinol)Antibacterial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Macrophages and keratinocytesSabineneCytotoxicity (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
MalariaNerolidolAntimalarial (moderate)1000mg/kgAntimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Malariaα-TerpineolAntimalarial (moderate)22.6% of mixtureComposition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Malassezia furfurTerpinoleneAntifungal (major)NAChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Mechanical hyperalgesiaLimoneneAntihyperalgesia (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Metabolic bone disordersΔ-3-CareneBone stimulant (moderate)NALow Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Microbiological ContaminantsMyrceneAntimicrobial (moderate)NAAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological ContaminantsMyrceneAntimicrobial (moderate)3.21% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological ContaminantsMyrceneAntimicrobial minorNAAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Microbiological ContaminantsMyrceneAntimicrobial minorNAChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia
Microbiological Contaminantsα-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (major)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contaminantsα-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (moderate)50μg/mLBiological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers
Microbiological Contaminantsα-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (moderate)α-pinene (9.35%),
β-pinene (3.90%)
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological ContaminationBorneolAntimicrobial (moderate)4.91% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological ContaminationCBC (Cannabichromene)Antimicrobial (major)NABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Microbiological ContaminationCBC (Cannabichromene)Antimicrobial (moderate)NAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
Microbiological ContaminationCBC (Cannabichromene)Antimicrobial (major)NABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Microbiological ContaminationCampheneAntimicrobial (moderate)NAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Microbiological ContaminationCaryophylleneAntimicrobial (moderate)7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Microbiological ContaminationCaryophyllene oxideAntimicrobial (moderate)60 to 80μg/mlCompositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Microbiological ContaminationCedrolAntimicrobial (minor)6.3% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Microbiological ContaminationD-LimoneneAntimicrobial (moderate)94% of mixtureOrange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
Microbiological ContaminationFarneseneAntimicrobial (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Microbiological ContaminationGuaiolAntimicrobial (minor)5% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
Microbiological ContaminationGuaiolAntimicrobial (minor)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Microbiological ContaminationGuaiolAntimicrobial (minor)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Microbiological ContaminationIsoborneolAntimicrobial (moderate)14.66% of mixtureGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Microbiological ContaminationMyrceneAntimicrobial (moderate)NAAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological ContaminationP-CymeneAntimicrobial (major)NAAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Microbiological ContaminationP-CymeneAntimicrobial (minor)5.33% of mixtureAntimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals
Microbiological ContaminationP-CymeneAntimicrobial moderate32.6mL/LChemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis
Microbiological ContaminationP-CymeneAntimicrobial (major)NAAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Microbiological ContaminationTerpineolAntimicrobial (major)NAAntimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Microbiological ContaminationTerpinoleneAntimicrobial (moderate)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Microbiological Contaminationα-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (major)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Microbiological Contaminationα-TerpineolAntimicrobial (minor)13.0% of mixtureAntimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Microbiological Contaminationβ-CedreneAntimicrobial (moderate)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
MosquitoEucalyptolLarvicidal (minor)100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
MosquitoGeraniolInsect repellant (major)NAEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
MosquitoGeraniolInsect repellant (major)NAEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
MosquitoGeraniolInsect repellant (moderate)5% of mixtureIndoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Multiple SclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antinociceptive (moderate)NACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)NACannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)NAThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)4spraysClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)2-10inhalationsClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)NASafety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antitremor (moderate)NATetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)1.54% of mixtureShort-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antinociceptive (moderate)NACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)NACannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Multiple SclerosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)>7.5mgDelta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (minor)12mgThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (moderate)NAClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (moderate)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (moderate)4spraysClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Myocardial contractility related disordersEucalyptolContractile Activity (cardiac muscle)0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
NauseaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
NauseaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiemetic (moderate)5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
NauseaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiemetic (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
NauseaCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (moderate)5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
NauseaCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (moderate)0.5 mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
NauseaCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (moderate)0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
NauseaCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (moderate)0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
NauseaCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (minor)0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
NauseaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NAAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
NauseaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
NauseaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
NauseaTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antinausea (minor)10mg/kgEvaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
NeurodegenerationTHCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)Neuroprotective (moderate)10μMEffects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
NeuroinflammationCBG (Cannabigerol)Antinflammatory (moderate)NAA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological disordersTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NACannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic PainLinaloolAntiinflammatory (moderate)NA(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Neuropathic PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (major)25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
NociceptionIsopulegolAnotinociceptive (moderate)NAAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
NociceptionLinaloolAntinociceptive (moderate)NAIntraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)3mg/kgSynthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)NAThe cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)NAEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)NAEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Stimulates neural effects (moderate)10mgNeural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
Obesityα-CedreneAntiobesity (moderate)10-20mg/kg,
50-100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
Oral mucositisBorneolAntiinflammatory (moderate)1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosisBorneolAntifibrosis (moderate)18.75 to 300μg/mlInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Osteoarthritisβ-MyrceneAntiinflammatory (moderate)NAEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
OsteoporosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Bone Stimulant (moderate)NARegulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Oxidative-stress related disordersCBG (Cannabigerol)Antioxidant (moderate)NACannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study.
Oxidative-stress related disordersCaryophylleneAntioxidant (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Oxidative-stress related disordersCaryophyllene oxideAntioxidant (moderate)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Oxidative-stress related disordersCymeneAntioxidant (moderate)NAEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
Oxidative-stress related disordersFarneseneAntioxidant (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Oxidative-stress related disordersGuaiolAntioxidant (moderate)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (major)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (major)NANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (moderate)NAAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (moderate)NAThe Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (minor)NAAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Oxidative-stress related disordersMyrceneAntioxidant (major)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
Oxidative-stress related disordersNerolidolAntioxidant (moderate)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
Oxidative-stress related disordersNerolidolAntioxidant (major)NAAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Oxidative-stress related disordersNerolidolAntioxidant (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
Oxidative-stress related disordersNerolidolAntioxidant (major)NAAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Oxidative-stress related disordersP-CymeneAntioxidant (moderate)NAAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disordersP-CymeneAntioxidant (moderate)NAAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disordersP-CymeneAntioxidant (moderate)NAAntioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
Oxidative-stress related disordersSabineneAntioxidant (moderate)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Oxidative-stress related disordersTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)NAReactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Oxidative-stress related disordersTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antioxidant (minor)NAUnderstanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Oxidative-stress related disordersTerpineolAntioxidant (moderate)NAEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Oxidative-stress related disordersTerpinoleneAntioxidant (moderate)11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Oxidative-stress related disordersTerpinoleneAntioxidant (moderate)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
Oxidative-stress related disordersTerpinoleneAntioxidant (moderate)11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Oxidative-stress related disordersα-TerpineolAntioxidant minorNAAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Oxidative-stress related disordersα-TerpineolAntioxidant (major)NAInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Oxidative-stress related disordersα-TerpineolAntioxidant (major)NAInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Oxidative-stress related disordersα-trans-BergamoteneAntioxidant (major)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Oxidative-stress related disordersβ-CedreneAntioxidant (major)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
PainBorneolAnalgesic (major)NAA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)NAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
PainCamphorAnalgesic (moderate)NACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
PainCamphorAnalgesic (moderate)200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
PainCamphorAnalgesic (moderate)NACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
PainCaryophyllene oxideAnesthetic (moderate)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
PainCaryophyllene oxideAnesthetic (moderate)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
PainCaryophyllene oxideAnesthetic (moderate)56.9% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
PainEucalyptolAnalgesic (moderate)NAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
PainLinaloolAnalgesic (moderate)NAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
PainLinaloolAnalgesic (moderate)NAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
PainLinaloolAnalgesic (moderate)NAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)12.3ng/mL/mgThe Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)NAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)NAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)NAOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)NAIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)NAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
PainTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antinociceptive (moderate)4mg/kgLow dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
Parkinson’s diseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s diseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s diseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Parkinson’s diseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s diseaseCaryophylleneAntiinflammatory (minor)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Parkinson’s diseaseCaryophylleneAntioxidant (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)NAPathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Pediculus humanus humanusGeraniolInsect repellent (moderate)NARepellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Periodontal diseaseβ-CaryophylleneAntibacterial (major)NAUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteriaTerpineolAntimicrobial (minor)NAAntimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Peripheral pain responseCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)NA(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Phytopathogenic bacteriaCampheneAntibacterial (major)5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungiCampheneAntifungal (major)NAChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Phytopathogenic fungiCymeneAntifungal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Phytopathogenic fungiP-CymeneAntifungal (major)NAAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Phytopathogenic fungiβ-CaryophylleneAntifungal (moderate)16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Pleurisyα-trans-BergamoteneAntiinflammatory (moderate)7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (moderate)NACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antidepressant (moderate)5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)NACannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6PhellandreneAntiinflammatory (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Prostate cancerGeraniolAnticancer (major)NAGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Prostate cancerLinaloolAnticancer (moderate)NAAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Psychotic ExperiencesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (minor)NACannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren)CamphorInsecticide (major)36.61% of mixtureFumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
ReflexesLinaloolAnesthetic (moderate)0.01 – 10μg/mlLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Retinal InflammatoryCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)NAMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic DiseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)NACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Rheumatoid arthritisβ-CaryophylleneAntiinflammatory (major)100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
SchizophreniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (moderate)0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
SchizophreniaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antipsychotic (moderate)2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
SeizuresCaryophylleneNeuroprotective (major)NANeuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
SeizuresCaryophylleneAnticonvulsant (minor)100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
SeizuresIsopulegolAnticonvulsant (major)NAEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
SepsisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (minor)NAEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adultsCymeneInsecticidal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Skin tumorigenesisD-LimoneneChemopreventive (major)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
d-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
Sleep ApneaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Improves sleep (moderate)20mgAround-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Sleep deprivationLimoneneRelaxant (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Sleep deprivationMyrceneRelaxant (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
SpasticityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (minor)NARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
SpasticityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
SpasticityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (minor)NASmoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
SpasticityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)15–20mgThe treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
SpasticityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasticity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Spinal injuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
StressGuaiolAnesthetic (minor)NAAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Superficial scaldFarneseneAntioxidant (minor)NASuperficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammationD-LimoneneAntiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Tension of the blood vessel wallsBorneolVasorelaxant (moderate)NAInvestigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
ThrombosisBorneolAnthrombotic (moderate)NAThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Tonic-clonic seizureCBN (Cannabinol)Anticonvulsant (moderate)NAAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
TouretteTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antihyperactivity (moderate)NADelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Tourette’s SyndromeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antihyperactivity (moderate)10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Tourette’s SyndromeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antihyperactivity (moderate)10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Tourette’s SyndromeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antihyperactivity (moderate)NAOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxationsTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antigastroesophageal reflux (moderate)20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Traumatic Brain InjuryTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotective (moderate)NAEffect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
Tribolium castaneumPulegoneInsecticidal (moderate)0.8-26.6% of mixtureChemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
TumorCBN (Cannabinol)Antitumor (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Tumorβ-CaryophylleneAntitumor (major)NAβ-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
UveitisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
VomitingTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)NATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
WritheLimoneneAntinociceptive (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
WritheLinaloolAntinociception (moderate)25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
WritheP-CymeneAntinociceptive (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
WritheTerpineolAnalgesic (moderate)NAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Condition treatedCannabinoid/ TerpeneEffectStudy
ALSCBN (Cannabinol)Neuroprotective (moderate)Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
AnorexiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Stimulate appetite (moderate)The cancer cachexia syndrome
BipolarTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotective (moderate)Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone DiseasesCBN (Cannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone DiseasesTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone DiseasesTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Bone Stimulant (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Bone diseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Stimulate Bone growth (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Breast cancerCBG (Cannabigerol)Antiproliferative (moderate)The system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
CancerCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (moderate)Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
Chronic DiseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Cerebroprotective (minor)Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
Crohn’s diseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (major)Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
DepressionCBC (Cannabichromene)Antidepressant (minor)Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
EpilepsyCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiepileptic (moderate)Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
GlaucomaCBN (Cannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)Cannabinoids and glaucoma
HypertensionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antihypertension (moderate)Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Intestinal prokineticCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiprokinetic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
MigraineTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotective (minor)Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Neurodegenerative DisordersCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotective (major)Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
OsteoporosisCBN (Cannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
OsteoporosisTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
PainTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Analgesic (moderate)Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the system? A systematic review
PsoriasisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsoriatic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
SchizophreniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychosis (moderate)A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Spasm and painTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasmodic (moderate)Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
SpasticityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (minor)Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

Cannabis has been shown to have many beneficial effects on users. The Cannabis Review® | Effects is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the molecules, found in cannabis, that have specific effects on users, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture
Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition
Primary Studies

The following scientific studies establish the potential effectiveness for treating specific conditions using molecules found in cannabis. The study names link to the full studies; click to view.

EffectMagnitudeCannabinoid/ TerpeneCondition treatedAmount usedStudyGrade
AnalgesicmajorBorneolPainNAA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Central neuropathic pain25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis2-10inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)PainNAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Pain2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)PainNAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)PainNAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)PainNAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Peripheral pain responseNA(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
AnalgesicmoderateCamphorPainNACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
AnalgesicmoderateCamphorPainNACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism.
AnalgesicmoderateCamphorPain200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
AnalgesicmoderateCaryophyllene oxidePain12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
AnalgesicmoderateEucalyptolPainNAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
AnalgesicmoderateLimoneneAlgesicNAInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
AnalgesicmoderateLinaloolPainNAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice.
AnalgesicmoderateLinaloolPainNAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
AnalgesicmoderateLinaloolPainNAOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
AnalgesicminorMyrceneHyperalgesiaNAMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
AnalgesicminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple Sclerosis10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial.
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisNAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple SclerosisNAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple Sclerosis2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
AnalgesicmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuropathic Pain25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain12.3ng/mL/mgThe Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
AnalgesicminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)PainNAIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
AnalgesicmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Pain2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
AnalgesicmoderateTerpineolWritheNAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
AnestheticmoderateCaryophyllene oxidePain56.9% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
AnestheticminorGuaiolStressNAAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
AnestheticmoderateLinaloolReflexes0.01 – 10 μg/mlLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
AnthromboticmoderateBorneolThrombosisNAThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Anti-acnemajorTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)AcneNADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
AntiarthriticmajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Arthritis5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
AntiasthmamajorGeraniolAsthma100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
AntibacterialmajorBacterial contaminationOcimene0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
AntibacterialmajorBacterial contaminationOcimene23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
AntibacterialmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial contamination50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
AntibacterialmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial contaminationNAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
AntibacterialmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Bacterial contaminationNAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
AntibacterialmoderateCBG (Cannabigerol)MRSANAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
AntibacterialmoderateCBN (Cannabinol)MRSANAAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
AntibacterialmajorCamphenePhytopathogenic Bacteria5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
AntibacterialmoderateCaryophylleneBacterial contamination10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
AntibacterialminorCaryophylleneBacterial contamination10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
AntibacterialmoderateCaryophylleneBacterial contamination10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
AntibacterialmoderateCaryophylleneBacterial contamination19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
AntibacterialmoderateCaryophylleneBacterial contamination35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
AntibacterialmoderateCaryophylleneBacterial contamination27% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
AntibacterialmoderateFenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)Bacterial contaminationNAScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
AntibacterialmajorGeranyl AcetateBacterial contamination7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
AntibacterialmajorHumuleneBacterial contamination14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
AntibacterialmajorMyrceneBacterial contaminationNANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
AntibacterialmoderateOcimeneBacterial contaminationNAAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
AntibacterialmajorOcimeneBacterial contamination0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
AntibacterialmoderateP-CymeneBacterial contamination0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Antibacterialmajorα-Pinene / β-PineneBacterial contaminationα-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Antibacterialmoderateα-trans-BergamoteneBuccal bacteria29.90% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Antibacterialmajorβ-CaryophyllenePeriodontal diseaseNAUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
AnticancermajorBorneolCancerNANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
AnticancermajorBorneolCancerNANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
AnticancermajorBorneolCancerNANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
AnticancermoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Cancer200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
AnticancermajorCBD (Cannabidiol)CancerNAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
AnticancermajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Cancer0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
AnticancermajorCBD (Cannabidiol)CancerNAThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
AnticancermajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Glioblastoma multiformeNAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
AnticancermoderateCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)cancerNACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
AnticancermoderateCampheneCervical cancerNAThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
AnticancermajorCaryophylleneCancer10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
AnticancermoderateCaryophylleneCancer7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
AnticancermoderateCaryophyllene oxideCancer17.90% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
AnticancermajorGeraniolProstate cancerNAGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
AnticancermajorHumuleneCancer32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
AnticancermoderateLinaloolBreast cancerNALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
AnticancermoderateLinaloolColon cancer100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
AnticancerminorLinaloolLung cancerNAA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
AnticancermoderateLinaloolProstate cancerNAAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
AnticancermajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glioblastoma multiformeNAA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
AnticancermoderateTerpineolCancer3 or 6mMα-Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
AnticancermoderateTerpineolHepatocellular carcinoma10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
AnticancermoderateTerpineolLiver cancer320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
AnticancermoderateTerpinoleneBrain tumour10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
AnticancermajorTerpinoleneBreast tumor, prostate carcinoma8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Anticancermajorα-Pinene / β-PineneCancerα-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
AnticonvulsantminorCBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyNACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
AnticonvulsantmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
AnticonvulsantmajorCBDV (Cannabidivarin)Epilepsy400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
AnticonvulsantmajorCBDV (Cannabidivarin)Epilepsy50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
AnticonvulsantmajorCBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyNACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
AnticonvulsantmoderateCBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyNACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
AnticonvulsantmoderateCBN (Cannabinol)Tonic-clonic seizureNAAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
AnticonvulsantminorCaryophylleneSeizures100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
AnticonvulsantmoderateIsopulegolSeizuresNAEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
AnticonvulsantmoderateLinaloolEpelipsyNAAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
AnticonvulsantmoderateTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Epelipsy0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
AntidepressantmajorCBC (Cannabichromene)Depression20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
AntidepressantmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Depression30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
AntidepressantmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Depression15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
AntidepressantmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Depression30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
AntidepressantmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Immobility10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
AntidepressantmajorCamphorDepression23.77% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
AntidepressantmoderateLimoneneImmobility10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
AntidepressantmoderateLinaloolAnxiety and depressionNALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
AntidepressantmoderateLinaloolDepression50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
AntidepressantmoderatePhellandreneImmobility10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
AntidepressantmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Immobility2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
AntidepressantmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Posttraumatic stress disorder5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Antidepressantmoderateα-Pinene / β-PineneDepressionNALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
AntidiabeticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetes mellitus100mgPEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
AntidiabeticmoderateD-LimoneneDiabetes mellitusNAProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
AntidiabeticmoderateTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Diabetes mellitus5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
AntidyspnoeamoderateCBD Cannabidiol)Breathing Difficulties10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
AntidystonicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Dystonia200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravatingmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Dystonia100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravatingmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Parkinson’s disease100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
AntiemeticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Nausea20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
AntiemeticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Nausea5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
AntiemeticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Nausea20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
AntiemeticminorCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
AntiemeticmoderateCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
AntiemeticmoderateCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
AntiemeticmoderateCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
AntiemeticmoderateCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea0.5μg/kg,
1.0μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
AntiemeticminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNADelta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Emetic18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticNAThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple Sclerosis15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)NauseaNAAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Nausea8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Nausea8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)VomitingNATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)EpilepsyNACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy5 – 50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
AntiepilepticmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
AntifibrosismoderateBorneolOral submucous fibrosis18.75 to 300μg/mlInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
AntifungalmajorBorneolFungal contaminationNABorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
AntifungalmajorCamphenePhytopathogenic fungiNAChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
AntifungalmoderateCymenePhytopathogenic fungi2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
AntifungalmajorD-LimoneneFungal contaminationNARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
AntifungalminorD-LimoneneFungal contamination56% of mixure,
57.5% of mixure
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
AntifungalmajorFarneseneFungal contamination14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
AntifungalmoderateMyrceneFungal contamination47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
AntifungalmajorNerolidolFungal contaminationNAEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
AntifungalmoderateOcimeneFungal contamination25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
AntifungalmoderateOcimeneFungal contamination30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
AntifungalmoderateOcimeneFungal contamination30.4% of mixureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
AntifungalmoderateP-CymeneFungal contamination36.5% of mixtureAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
AntifungalmoderateP-CymeneFungal contamination1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
AntifungalmoderateP-CymeneFungal contamination1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
AntifungalmajorP-CymenePhytopathogenic fungiNAAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
AntifungalmoderatePhellandreneFungal contamination1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
AntifungalmoderateSabineneDermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
AntifungalminorSabineneFungal contamination29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
AntifungalmoderateSabineneFungal contamination26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
AntifungalmoderateSabineneFungal contamination31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
AntifungalmoderateSabineneFungal contamination31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
AntifungalmoderateTerpinoleneBotrytis cinereaNAAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
AntifungalmajorTerpinoleneMalassezia furfurNAChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Antifungalmoderateβ-CaryophyllenePhytopathogenic fungi16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Antigastroesophageal refluxmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
AntiglaucomaminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Glaucoma20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
AntiglaucomamoderateCBG (Cannabigerol)GlaucomaNAA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
AntiglaucomamoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glaucoma2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
AntiglaucomaminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glaucoma< 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount]Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
AntiglaucomaminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glaucoma< 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount]Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
AntiglaucomaminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glaucoma12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
AntihyperactivitymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s SyndromeNAOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
AntihyperactivitymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s Syndrome10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
AntihyperactivitymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s Syndrome10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
AntihyperactivitymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Tourette’s Syndrome10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
AntihyperanalgesiamoderateLimoneneHyperalgesia10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
AntihyperanalgesiamoderateLimoneneMechanical hyperalgesia10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
AntihyperanalgesiamoderateP-CymeneHyperalgesia25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
AntihyperanalgesiamoderatePhellandreneCold and mechanical hyperalgesia11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
AntihyperlipidemicmoderateCampheneHyperlipidemic30μg/grCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
AntiinflammatorymajorBorneolInflammationNAAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
AntiinflammatorymoderateBorneolOral mucositis1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)ColitisNAThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)EdemaNAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)EdemaNAAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)Edema120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)Inflammation-induced hypermotility10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
AntiinflammatorymajorCBC (Cannabichromene)Microbiological contaminationNABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)AD-related neuroinflammation2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Acute Pancreatitis0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Acute lung injury20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Chronic Pain2.5–20mg/kgThe non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic ComplicationsNACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic ComplicationsNACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetic ComplicationsNACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Inflammation5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
AntiinflammatoryminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroinflammatory diseasesNAAnti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesNAPathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Retinal InflammatoryNAMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Rheumatic diseasesNACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
AntiinflammatoryminorCBD (Cannabidiol)SepsisNAEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
AntiinflammatorymajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Uveitis5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
AntiinflammatoryminorCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Inflammation2μMCannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
AntiinflammatorymajorCBG (Cannabigerol)Irritable bowel syndromeNABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBG (Cannabigerol)NeuroinflammationNAA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
AntiinflammatorymoderateCBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid)InflammationNAEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
AntiinflammatorymoderateCamphorArthritisNAStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
AntiinflammatoryminorCaryophylleneParkinson’s disease50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
AntiinflammatorymajorCaryophyllene oxideInflammation12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
AntiinflammatorymajorCymeneLipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryNAProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
AntiinflammatorymajorD-LimoneneTNBS-induced intestinal inflammation10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
AntiinflammatorymajorEucalyptolAcute lung injury100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
AntiinflammatorymajorEucalyptolAirway hypersecretion200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
AntiinflammatorymoderateEucalyptolColitis200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
AntiinflammatorymoderateEucalyptolEdemaNAAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
AntiinflammatorymoderateEucalyptolEdema, Pulmonary inflammationNATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
AntiinflammatoryminorEucalyptolMosquito larvae100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
AntiinflammatorymoderateGeraniolAtherosclerosis100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
AntiinflammatorymajorHumuleneEdemaNAAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
AntiinflammatorymajorIsopulegolEdema22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
AntiinflammatorymoderateIsopulegolEdemaNAAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
AntiinflammatorymajorLimoneneEdema25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and AntinociceptiveAntinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
AntiinflammatorymoderateLinaloolEdemaNAα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
AntiinflammatorymajorLinaloolInflammationNAAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
AntiinflammatorymoderateLinaloolNeuropathic painNA(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
AntiinflammatorymoderateMentholChronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitisNAThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
AntiinflammatorymoderateMyrceneInflammation47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
AntiinflammatorymoderateP-CymeneHyperalgesia, Pleurisy25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
AntiinflammatorymoderateP-CymeneInflammation25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
AntiinflammatorymoderatePhellandrenePro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-650mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
AntiinflammatorymoderatePhytolEdema7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
AntiinflammatorymajorSabineneInflammation29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
AntiinflammatorymoderateSabineneLipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
AntiinflammatoryminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Crohn’s Disease115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
AntiinflammatoryminorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EdemaNAAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
AntiinflammatorymajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
AntiinflammatorymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Intestinal inflammationNAChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
AntiinflammatorymoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Ischaemia-reperfusion injuryNAΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
AntiinflammatorymoderateTerpineolEdemaNAA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
AntiinflammatorymoderateTerpineol-4-olLPS-stimulated human macrophagesNATerpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
AntiinflammatorymoderateΔ-3-CareneEdemaNAPharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
AntiinflammatorymoderateΔ-3-CareneEdemaNAPharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
AntiinflammatorymoderateΔ-3-CareneEdemaNAComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Antiinflammatorymajorα-BisabololEdemaNAAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Antiinflammatorymoderateα-BisabololInflammationNAInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
Antiinflammatorymoderateα-Pinene / β-PineneInflammationNAα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Antiinflammatorymajorα-TerpineolEdema6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Antiinflammatorymoderateα-trans-BergamotenePleurisy7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Antiinflammatorymajorβ-CaryophylleneRheumatoid arthritis100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of β-Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Antiinflammatorymoderateβ-MyrceneOsteoarthritisNAEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
AntileishmanialmoderateNerolidolLeishmania species100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
AntileishmanialmoderateNerolidolLeishmania species100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol